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Kim E. Hummer

In 1999, the National Clonal Germplasm Repository at Corvallis, Ore., was assigned to preserve the hardy Actinidia Lindl. resources for the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. The fuzzy kiwifruit [A. deliciosa (A. Chev) C. F. Liang et A. R. Furguson] and other less cold-hardy Actinidia species, remain at the Davis Repository. The hardy Actinidia, commonly called Chinese gooseberries or hardy kiwifruit, encompass two taxonomic sections, Leiocarpae and Maculatae, and include about 13 described species. These perennial vines are natives of Asia and have been developed and cultivated in Lushan, Wuhan, and Guilin, China; Motueka, New Zealand; Kagawa Prefecture, Japan; Vladivostok, Russia; and California, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, and New York in the United States. Thus far, the Corvallis Repository has established representatives of six species, A. arguta (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. Ex Miq., A. callosa Lindl., A. kolomikta (Maxim.&Rupr.) Maxim, A. melanandra Franch., A. polygama (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim., A. purpurea Rehder and 60 cultivars. These clones will be preserved as potted plants under screen. They will also be fruited and evaluated as trellised plants in the field. The repository plans to expand the species diversity of the collections. Plant requests for dormant scionwood or spring softwood cuttings are available by contacting the Corvallis Repository Curator.

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Kim E. Hummer

Several species of Ribes have ornamental qualities worthy of consideration in residential and commercial temperate zone landscape plantings. Ribes sanguineum Pursh has been selected and cultivated throughout the Pacific Northwest, and boasts of early spring flowers of white, pink, or red. The two species of golden currants, R. aureum Pursh and R. odoratum Wendl. f., have brilliant yellow-fl owered racemes. Ribes species exhibit a broad diversity of plant habit and texture ranging from the upright 2.5 m, vigorous, and fully armed Menzieís Gooseberry, R. menziesii Pursh, to the prostrate shade-loving Crater Lake currant, R. erythrocarpum Coville & Leiberg. R. viburnifolium A. Gray remains evergreen in mild climates throughout the year. The foliage of some selections of R. americanum Miller and R. cynosbati L. brighten to a brilliant crimson red in the fall. The fall foliage of other species, such as R. hirsuta L., develop a continuum of color on their branches, from bright red at the apex, through orange and yellow to green towards the base. Spring bloom data and ratings of fall color for species in the Corvallis Repository collection will be described.

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John A. Muir and Richard S. Hunt

Introductions of white pine blister rust (WPBR, causal fungus: Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer) to eastern and western North America before 1915 caused such extensive damage that western white pine (Pinus monticola D. Don) was essentially abandoned as a manageable forest tree species for over 60 years. Recent results from WPBR resistance selection and breeding programs, and from field trials of tree spacing, pruning and bark excision treatments have supported efforts to increase establishment and to intensively manage western white pine. Western white pine is a desirable component in many forested areas because of its faster growth and much higher value compared to many other associated tree species. It also has a low susceptibility to armillaria root disease caused by Armillaria ostoyae (Romagnesi) Herink and laminated root rot, caused by Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gilb. Some regulations, e.g., Forest Practices Code of British Columbia (BC) Act, require anyone who harvests timber on provincial forestland and uses western white pine for reforestation to either plant genetically resistant western white pine stock or prune susceptible young trees for protection. Risks of increased WPBR associated with increased commercial cultivation of gooseberries and currants (Ribes L.) have yet to be determined. However, major threats appear to include 1) increase in local amounts of spores for nearby infection of pines; and 2) possible introductions or development of new, virulent races of C. ribicola, particularly from eastern to Pacific northwestern North America. In view of these possible threats, we recommend that existing regulations and legislation should be amended, or possibly new measures enacted, to permit propagation and commercial cultivation only of varieties of Ribes that are immune or highly resistant to WPBR.

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

American gooseberry mildew ( Sphaerotheca mors-uvae Schwein./Berk. et Curt.) and produces very high-quality fruit for fresh market ( Gwozdecki, 1993 ). The other, commercially grown Polish blackcurrant cultivars that are registered and protected by the

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

productivity. Its plants are susceptible to American gooseberry mildew ( Sphaerotheca mors-uvae Schwein./Berk. et Curt.) and gall mite ( Cecidophyopsis ribis West.) but are resistant to leaf spot ( Drepanopeziza ribis Kleb. Petrak.) and white pine blister

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Kim E. Hummer, James R. Ballington, Chad E. Finn, and Thomas M. Davis

have been adopted for cultivation on other continents and in other cultures. This brief article profiles two Asian berry crops with potential for expanded commercial cultivation in North America. Short descriptions of the Chinese gooseberry, also called

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Gayle M. Volk and Christopher M. Richards

, OR, and Arctic and Subarctic Plant Gene Bank, Palmer, AK, described some of the new strawberry ( Fragaria ), currants and gooseberries ( Ribes ), raspberries and blackberries ( Rubus ), and blueberries and cranberries ( Vaccinium ) species that she

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

Blackcurrant reversion virus ( Brennan et al., 2008 ). ‘Polares’ is resistant to the powdery mildew (American gooseberry mildew) ( Sphaerotheca mors-uvae Schwein./Berk. et Curt.), moderately susceptible to anthracnose ( Drepanopeziza ribis Kleb.) and

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Christian Andreasen, Andrius Hansen Kemezys, and Renate Müller

. Foliar-applied calcium can have a positive effect on seed set and quality on some ornamental plant species, e.g., Indian gooseberry ( Emblica officinalis ) ( Shukla, 2011 ) and Petunia ( Santos et al., 2009 ). In the present study we hypothesized that 1

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Marie-José Côté and Lisa Leduc

. Similar studies of cultivar differentiation were done on gooseberry ( Ribes grossularia subgenus Grossularia ) ( Lanham and Brennan, 1999 ) and olive ( Olea europaea L.) ( Montemurro et al., 2005 ) in which AFLP was compared with other techniques such