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Kim E. Hummer

Several species of Ribes have ornamental qualities worthy of consideration in residential and commercial temperate zone landscape plantings. Ribes sanguineum Pursh has been selected and cultivated throughout the Pacific Northwest, and boasts of early spring flowers of white, pink, or red. The two species of golden currants, R. aureum Pursh and R. odoratum Wendl. f., have brilliant yellow-fl owered racemes. Ribes species exhibit a broad diversity of plant habit and texture ranging from the upright 2.5 m, vigorous, and fully armed Menzieís Gooseberry, R. menziesii Pursh, to the prostrate shade-loving Crater Lake currant, R. erythrocarpum Coville & Leiberg. R. viburnifolium A. Gray remains evergreen in mild climates throughout the year. The foliage of some selections of R. americanum Miller and R. cynosbati L. brighten to a brilliant crimson red in the fall. The fall foliage of other species, such as R. hirsuta L., develop a continuum of color on their branches, from bright red at the apex, through orange and yellow to green towards the base. Spring bloom data and ratings of fall color for species in the Corvallis Repository collection will be described.

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Steven McKay

Recent interest in expanding commercial currant and gooseberry (Ribes L.) plantings in the United States has put pressure on the states with Ribes restrictions to review their regulations. A meeting on 9 January 1998 initiated discussion between the state agriculture regulatory agencies, forest pathologists, and horticulturists. Since then a white pine blister rust (WPBR), Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer) World Wide Web (Web) site (McKay, 1998) and list serve have been activated to facilitate communication. Vermont is a state that has no regulations on the books at this time. Connecticut and New York also have mentioned that infection rates are low. Maine retains a Ribes reduction program, and Massachusetts is strictly enforcing their regulations. The following summarizes the general consensus among the majority of regulating states: 1) It is desirable to find a way for both white pines (Pinus L.) and commercial Ribes plantings to coexist. 2) More research is needed to survey existing Ribes and pines, the potential impact of commercial plantings versus the impact of existing Ribes, and the potential impact of escape /volunteer seedlings from immune Ribes cultivars. 3) There is interest in permitting immune Ribes cultivars to be planted. 4) There is interest in having consistency in regulations from state to state.

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John A. Muir and Richard S. Hunt

Introductions of white pine blister rust (WPBR, causal fungus: Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer) to eastern and western North America before 1915 caused such extensive damage that western white pine (Pinus monticola D. Don) was essentially abandoned as a manageable forest tree species for over 60 years. Recent results from WPBR resistance selection and breeding programs, and from field trials of tree spacing, pruning and bark excision treatments have supported efforts to increase establishment and to intensively manage western white pine. Western white pine is a desirable component in many forested areas because of its faster growth and much higher value compared to many other associated tree species. It also has a low susceptibility to armillaria root disease caused by Armillaria ostoyae (Romagnesi) Herink and laminated root rot, caused by Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gilb. Some regulations, e.g., Forest Practices Code of British Columbia (BC) Act, require anyone who harvests timber on provincial forestland and uses western white pine for reforestation to either plant genetically resistant western white pine stock or prune susceptible young trees for protection. Risks of increased WPBR associated with increased commercial cultivation of gooseberries and currants (Ribes L.) have yet to be determined. However, major threats appear to include 1) increase in local amounts of spores for nearby infection of pines; and 2) possible introductions or development of new, virulent races of C. ribicola, particularly from eastern to Pacific northwestern North America. In view of these possible threats, we recommend that existing regulations and legislation should be amended, or possibly new measures enacted, to permit propagation and commercial cultivation only of varieties of Ribes that are immune or highly resistant to WPBR.

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

American gooseberry mildew ( Sphaerotheca mors-uvae Schwein./Berk. et Curt.) and produces very high-quality fruit for fresh market ( Gwozdecki, 1993 ). The other, commercially grown Polish blackcurrant cultivars that are registered and protected by the

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

productivity. Its plants are susceptible to American gooseberry mildew ( Sphaerotheca mors-uvae Schwein./Berk. et Curt.) and gall mite ( Cecidophyopsis ribis West.) but are resistant to leaf spot ( Drepanopeziza ribis Kleb. Petrak.) and white pine blister

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Kim E. Hummer, James R. Ballington, Chad E. Finn, and Thomas M. Davis

have been adopted for cultivation on other continents and in other cultures. This brief article profiles two Asian berry crops with potential for expanded commercial cultivation in North America. Short descriptions of the Chinese gooseberry, also called

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Gayle M. Volk and Christopher M. Richards

, OR, and Arctic and Subarctic Plant Gene Bank, Palmer, AK, described some of the new strawberry ( Fragaria ), currants and gooseberries ( Ribes ), raspberries and blackberries ( Rubus ), and blueberries and cranberries ( Vaccinium ) species that she

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

Blackcurrant reversion virus ( Brennan et al., 2008 ). ‘Polares’ is resistant to the powdery mildew (American gooseberry mildew) ( Sphaerotheca mors-uvae Schwein./Berk. et Curt.), moderately susceptible to anthracnose ( Drepanopeziza ribis Kleb.) and

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Christian Andreasen, Andrius Hansen Kemezys, and Renate Müller

. Foliar-applied calcium can have a positive effect on seed set and quality on some ornamental plant species, e.g., Indian gooseberry ( Emblica officinalis ) ( Shukla, 2011 ) and Petunia ( Santos et al., 2009 ). In the present study we hypothesized that 1

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Marie-José Côté and Lisa Leduc

. Similar studies of cultivar differentiation were done on gooseberry ( Ribes grossularia subgenus Grossularia ) ( Lanham and Brennan, 1999 ) and olive ( Olea europaea L.) ( Montemurro et al., 2005 ) in which AFLP was compared with other techniques such