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M. D. McCullough, J. E. Motes, B. A. Kahn, and N. E. Maness

One of the problems associated with machine harvesting of spice peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) is plant lodging. Factorial combinations of four bedding treatments and two N rates were compared for effects on lodging and fruit yield of Chile at Fort Cobb and Bixby, Okla.. and of paprika at Bixby, Okla. Bedding treatments were: 1) no-bed; 2) no-bed with 5 cm of soil hilled to the bases of plants; 3) bedded preplant but bed not maintained throughout the growing season; and 4) bedded preplant and bed maintained throughout the growing season. All plots received preplant N at a low rate (45 kg ha-1). Half the plots also received a topdressing of 45 kg ha“ of N at early fruit set. No significant differences were found among the different bedding treatments for lodging. Bedding treatments one and three led to higher Chile yields at Bixby than treatments two and four. Bedding treatments one and two led to higher paprika yields than treatments three and four. Chiles showed an increase in plant height and width with the higher N rate at both locations. The higher N rate also increased plant dry matter and fruit yield in all three studies. Paprika uprooting force was greater in treatments two and four compared to treatments one and three.

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J.D. Mihail and S.M. Alcorn

The establishment of stands from directly sown seed may be a way to reduce the current high costs associated with guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) cultivation. These field studies were conducted to examine the combined effects of shade and fungicides on the survival of guayule seedlings established from directly sown seed. Soil in the experimental plot was a loam of pH 7.25. The following fungicides: a) Terraclor Super X, b) Ridomil 5G, c) Ridomil PC llG, d) Tilt 3.6E, e) Terracoat, and f) Vitavax + PCNB were tested alone and in combination with the nonwoven polyester shadecloth, Reemay, to identify treatments enhancing seed germination and seedling establishment. In all cases, seedling emergence in microplots covered with Reemay was significantly higher than in noncovered microplots. Terraclor Super X, Ridomil 5G, and Ridomil PC 1 lG were effective only when used in combination with the shadecloth. The long-term survival of guayule seedlings was strongly affected by severe climatic events. Since Reemay-protected seedlings were larger and more robust, they were more likely to survive the climatic extremes than unprotected seedlings. Two new guayule seedling pathogens were recorded -pythium dissotocum Drechsler and P. paroecandrum Drechsler. Chemical names used: 5-ethoxy-3-(trichloromethyl)-1,2,4-thiadiazole (Terrazole) + pen. tachloronitrobenzene (PCNB); N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alamine methyl ester Ridomil + PCNB; 7. bromo-5-chloro-quinolin-8-yl-acrylate; Terrazole 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-l,4 -oxathiin-3-carboxanilide + PCNB.

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Gerald B. Odell, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Herbert H. Bryan, and Peter J. Stoffella

Primed, pregerminated, or nontreated `FloraDade' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds in combination with several soil amendments were evaluated in three experiments for stand establishment characteristics and fresh-market fruit yields. Total percent emergence, seedling shoot weight, and marketable fruit yield were not consistently improved by GrowSorb, gel-mix, plug-mix covers, or mixtures with seeds as compared with a control (soil cover). However, rate of emergence was generally faster for plots containing primed or pregerminated seeds with soil amendments than for plots with a soil cover. Primed or pregerminated seeds emerged faster, and had higher total percent emergence and heavier seedling shoot weights than nontreated seeds, but there was little difference in response between primed and pregerminated seeds. Plants from the primed or pregerminated plots produced earlier (first harvest) marketable fruit than did plants from nontreated seed plots in one of three experiments. Priming or pregermination of tomato seeds resulted in a more consistently improved stand establishment than soil amendments.

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Dale N. Seale, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Peter J. Stoffella

Primed, primed + BA, or nontreated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds were sown with several soil amendment covers or a sandy soil cover (control) to assess stand establishment in three field experiments. Seeds covered with amendments Growsorb LVM 24/48, Growsorb 6/30, and plug-mix had a higher percent emergence than soil-covered seeds in warm soil. Primed seeds (with or without BA) had a higher percent emergence than nontreated seeds. Emergence was more rapid with plug-mix, LVM 24/48, and LVM 6/30 covers than with the sandy soil control. Primed seeds with or without BA also emerged more rapidly and produced heavier seedling shoots than nontreated seeds. Using primed lettuce seeds combined with specific soil amendments can improve lettuce stand establishment under various field conditions. Chemical name used: 6-benzyladenine (BA).

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Kathryn M. Kleitz, Marisa M. Wall, Constance L. Falk, Charles A. Martin, Marta D. Remmenga, and Steven J. Guldan

herbs. The purpose of this study was to compare direct seeding to transplants for plant establishment, and to find the number of marketable harvests and the yield for five herbs: calendula, catnip, lemon balm, stinging nettle, and globemallow. Materials

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Kenneth E. Conway, John M. Dole, Theresa L. Bosma, and Niels O. Maness

Field seedling emergence of four african marigold (Tagetes erecta) breeding lines, A-975, E-1236, I-822, and `Orange Lady', was examined using three or four spring sowing dates and either osmotic or solid matrix priming. Delayed sowing decreased emergence time. Sowing from middle to late April [average soil temperatures 77.0 to 84.2 °F (25 to 29 °C)] resulted in the highest total emergence percentages. Greater fl ower quantities [4.9 to 5.1 million/acre (12.11 to 12.60 million/ha)] and estimated yield [7.5 to 10.8 tons/acre (16.81 to 24.20 t·ha-1)] indicate mid to late April is the optimum time period for direct sowing unprimed seed in the southern Great Plains. Differences between lines were evident in emergence parameters and fl ower harvest data for each year examined, but results were inconsistent from year to year. However, A-975 and E-1236 produced harvestable fl owers most quickly, about 15 d before I-822, which could result in an additional harvest during a season. Osmotic priming of E-1236 and I-822 seed shortened emergence time, increased emergence uniformity, and increased total emergence percentage at early sowing dates as compared to both solid matrix primed and unprimed seed.

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Carol A. Miles, Thomas S. Collins, Yao Mu, and Travis Robert Alexander

seeding dates, two planting methods, and three cultivars. The seeding dates were 17 May, 31 May, 14 June, and 28 June 2018, and the two planting methods were transplanting and direct seeding. The three bulb fennel cultivars were selected based on the

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Victoria J. Ackroyd and Mathieu Ngouajio

systems. However, more information is needed on their impact on cash crops (especially those that are direct-seeded) to ensure they are safe tools to use in vegetable production. The objectives of this study were to quantify the impact of oilseed radish

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David Granatstein, Joan R. Davenport, and Elizabeth Kirby

loss, increasing weed seed germination, and damaging surface tree roots. Direct seeding equipment has been developed for a variety of cropping systems and can be adapted for use in orchards, thus avoiding these problems. The objectives of the study were

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Charlene M. Grahn, Barbara Hellier, Chris Benedict, and Carol Miles

emergence of seedlings has long been the goal of horticulturists as a means of optimizing stand uniformity and maturity in direct-seeded crops ( Fromme et al., 2014 ; Seale and Cantliffe, 1987 ). Low soil temperatures can increase the time to emergence