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Chengyan Yue and Bridget K. Behe

, mood, social behavior, and even immediate and long-term memory. Flower color is a primary product attribute for combination planters ( Mason et al., 2008 ), edible flowers ( Kelley et al., 2001 , 2002 ), geraniums ( Behe et al., 1999 ), and

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Tommy E. Thompson, L.J. Grauke, and E.F. Young Jr.

The Munsell Color System was used to study pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] kernel colors and color changes for 21 clones, 11 locations, and five storage methods for nuts collected over 4 years. Hue readings ranged from 10.0 (10 red) to 22.5 (2.5 yellow). Value readings ranged from 2.0 to 8.0, and chroma readings ranged from 1.0 to 8.0. A total of 91 classes (individual combinations of hue, value, and chroma) were needed to describe all kernel colors. Overall, one class 115.0/5/4 (hue/value/chroma)] accounted for 3979 of the 32,078 readings taken, and the 15 most common classes accounted for 80.7% of all the readings. This system of color determination was well-suited for pecan color determinations and continues to be used routinely as a part of our breeding and genetics program to define this important quality trait in pecan.

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Michele Renee Warmund

, kernel size, kernel percent, tendency to yield large pieces of kernels when cracked, and flavor, kernel color is a component of black walnut fruit quality ( Funk, 1979 ). However, kernel color can be highly variable and is apparently affected by cultural

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Ross Braun, Jack Fry, Megan Kennelly, Dale Bremer, and Jason Griffin

in the transition zone may avoid use of zoysiagrass because they object to its long duration of brown color during dormancy. ‘Chisholm’ zoysiagrass is a suitable turfgrass for residential and commercial lawns, parks, and golf courses in the transition

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Barbara J. Daniels-Lake, Robert K. Prange, Stephanie D. Bishop, and Kimberly Hiltz

Approximately half of the potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in North America are consumed as French fries or potato chips. For the processors who make these products, fry color is a vitally important quality characteristic. The preferred

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Joshua D. Williamson, Cameron P. Peace, Frederick A. Bliss, David T. Garner, and Carlos H. Crisosto

The Y locus of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] controls whether a tree will produce fruit with white or yellow flesh. Flesh color has implications for consumer acceptance and nutritional quality, and improved cultivars of both flesh types are actively sought. This paper focuses on evidence that the flesh color locus also controls senescent leaf color (easily observed in the fall) and hypanthium color. In two progeny populations totaling 115 progeny plus their parents, the three traits co-segregated completely. Trees carrying the dominant allele for white flesh had yellow senescent leaves and yellow hypanthia, while homozygous recessive yellow-fleshed types exhibited orange senescent leaves and orange hypanthia. Senescent leaf color was also measured quantitatively, with major colorimetric differences observed between white-fleshed and yellow-fleshed progeny. Senescent leaf hue angle and reflected light wavelengths of 500 to 560 nm were the parameters most affected by the flesh color locus. Results were verified with 10 white-fleshed and 10 yellow-fleshed cultivars. The findings show that the Y locus in peach controls the type and concentration of carotenoids in multiple organs, including fruit, leaves, and flowers. The ability to discriminate between white and yellow flesh color using a simple visual method, applicable in plants not yet at reproductive maturity, is valuable to breeders wanting to save time, growing space, and money.

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Brian A. Kahn and William G. McGlynn

Color and appearance factors are the primary quality attributes that can be appraised by consumers of fresh produce at the time of purchase ( Gamble et al., 2006 ; Kramer, 1951 ). Historically, the snap beans purchased by U.S. consumers were a

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Colton Ives, Vidyasagar R. Sathuvalli, Brooke C. Colburn, and Shawn A. Mehlenbacher

color dominant to green, is sufficient to explain the 1:1 ratios observed in C . avellana populations. The A locus is linked to the incompatibility locus ( Thompson, 1985 ), but the distance between the two loci could not be accurately estimated

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Rob Kuper

“obvious mathematical expression” of complexity, Shannon’s information entropy ( Shannon and Weaver, 1949 ; Stamps, 2002 , 2003 ), and has computed entropy values using attributes of complexity, like color. Thus, the first purpose of this study is to

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Hiroaki Ito, Takahiro Hayashi, Masaki Hashimoto, Katsuro Miyagawa, Saori Nakamura, Youichi Mizuta, and Susumu Yazawa

several years. However, preserved flowers do not retain their natural color. Flowers are artificially stained by soaking in polyethylene glycol with synthetic dyes. It is difficult to stain sepals, stems, and leaves separately from petals, thus multicolor