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Kim Hummer and Donna Gerten

In commercial growing regions the bloom period for currants and gooseberries is critical to crop development because of potentially damaging spring frosts. Breeding programs in northern latitudes include selection for frost avoidance mechanisms such as late blooming tendencies. Corvallis climate is milder than Ribes production regions, with the average winter minimum temperature about 10C and the coldest recorded April temperature of -5C in 1926. The last spring frost occurs by April 14 on average. About 30 cultivars and species selections of currants and about that same number of gooseberries were evaluated for blooming and fruiting at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository. Dates of first bloom, last bloom, first ripening, and last ripening during 1987 through 1989 were collected. The longest ripening period, 93 days, occurred in 1989 on a selection of R. burejense F. Schmidt. The shortest ripening period in 1989 was 70 days, occurring in many black currant cultivars including Black September, Crusader, Coronet, and Invigo. These same cultivars required a range from 62 to 66 days to ripen m 1987. For the years examined thus far, the earliest ripening dates occurred in 1987, starting as early as Julian date 150; the latest ripening date (192, Julian) occurred in 1988. Data from 1990 will be presented. The climate in the Pacific Northwest is favorable for the production of currants and gooseberries.

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

. Knight, V.H. Parker, J.H. 1982 Progress in the integration of characters in gall mite ( Cecidophyopsis ribis ) resistant black currants J. Hort. Sci. 57 189 196 Knight, R.L. Keep, E. Briggs, J.B. Parker, J.H. 1974 Transference of resistance to black

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

resources for sustainable production J. Fruit Ornamental Plant Res. 12 147 158 Kapasakalidis, P.G. Rastall, R.A. Gordon, M.H. 2006 Extraction of polyphenols from processed black currant ( Ribes nigrum L.) residues J. Agr. Food Chem. 54 4016 4021 Karjalainen

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Marja Rantanen and Pauliina Palonen

, temperatures of 40 and 45 °C released dormancy in single-node cane pieces ( Palonen and Lindén, 2006 ). Furthermore, hot water treatment (45 °C) can be used to enhance rooting and growth of black currant ( Ribes nigrum L.) cuttings ( Pedersen et al., 2005

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

. 352 325 328 Hummer, K.E. 1999 Titania. In: Register of new fruit and nut varieties, List 39, ed. by W.R. Okie. HortScience 34:188 Pluta, S. Żurawicz, E. 1993 Black currant ( Ribes nigrum ) breeding programme in Poland Acta Hort. 352 447 453 Pluta, S

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A.L. Shober, K.A. Moore, C. Wiese, S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, and M. Paz

-grown wild coffee, copperleaf, and orange jasmine is affected by irrigation frequency HortTechnology 19 786 791 Rogers, W.S. 1934 Root studies III. Pears, gooseberry and black currant root systems under different soil fertility conditions with some

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Doina Clapa, Alexandru Fira, and Nirmal Joshee

in size. In 3 weeks they doubled their height. Unlike our results, Ružić and Lazić (2006) rooted in vitro the shoots obtained in the multiplication stage, in black currant ‘Čačanska crna’, in similar conditions and then the rooted plantlets were

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Karen Salandanan, Marisa Bunning, Frank Stonaker, Oktay Külen, Patricia Kendall, and Cecil Stushnoff

Lester and Crosby's (2002) . Other studies have reported considerable genetic variability for antioxidant content and activity among tomato cultivars ( Spencer et al., 2005 ), black currant ( Tabart et al., 2006 ), apple ( Al-Turki et al., 2008

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Kim E. Hummer

analysis. Ellagic acid was present as free and glycosylated forms and ellagitannins; other reportedly anticarcinogenic compounds were also present. Table 2. Total anthocyanin (ACY), berry count, and total phenolics (TPH) of blueberries, black currants

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Kim E. Hummer

. Worldwide, black currants are the primary cultivated Ribes crop for juice production; however, red and white currants and gooseberries are produced for fresh eating and preserves. Ribes serves as a cohost for the white pine blister rust disease caused by