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Dangyang Ke and Adel A. Kader

`Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] tolerated up to 20 days of exposure to 0.5%, 0.25%, or 0.02% O2, at 5 or 10C followed by holding in air at 5C for 7 days without any detrimental effects on external and internal appearance. Oranges stored in 0.5%, 0.25%, or 0.02% O2 had lower respiration rates, but higher resistance to CO, diffusion and higher ethanol evolution rates than those stored in air at 10C. Similar, but less pronounced, effects of the low O2 atmospheres were observed at O and SC. Respiration rates, internal CO2 concentrations, and ethanol evolution rates were generally higher at 10C than at 0C, while resistance to CO2 diffusion was lower at the higher temperature. `Valencia' oranges kept in 60% CO2 at 5C for 5 to 14 days followed by holding in air at 5C for 7 days developed slight to severe injury that was characterized by skin browning and lowered external appearance scores. Juice color, soluble solids content, pH, titratable acidity, and ascorbic acid content were not significantly influenced by either the low O2 or the high CO2 treatments. However, these treatments increased ethanol and acetaldehyde contents, which correlated with the decrease in flavor score of the fruits. Ethanol content of the oranges transferred to air following low 02 treatment correlated with CO2 production rate of the fruits at the transfer temperature and was related to ethanol evolution and probably production rates after the transfer.

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James Mattheis and John K. Fellman

The commercial use of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology provides a means to slow the processes of ripening and senescence during storage, transport, and marketing of many fresh fruit and vegetables. The benefits of MAP and controlled atmosphere (CA) technologies for extending postharvest life of many fruit and vegetables have been recognized for many years. Although both technologies have been and continue to be extensively researched, more examples of the impacts of CA on produce quality are available in the literature and many of these reports were used in development of this review. Storage using MAP, similar to the use of CA storage, impacts most aspects of produce quality although the extent to which each quality attribute responds to CA or modified atmosphere (MA) conditions varies among commodities. Impacts of MAP and CA on flavor and aroma are dependent on the composition of the storage atmosphere, avoidance of anaerobic conditions, storage duration, and the use of fresh-cut technologies before storage.

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Eliahou Cohen, Yavin Shalom, and Ida Rosenberger

Britex and Zivdar, water-based polyethylene waxes, were applied in commercial and experimental formulations as spray coating, a single dip, or double dips on `Murcott' tangerine (Citrus reticulate Blanco) fruits. Postharvest waxing of `Murcott' tangerine reduced weight loss but affected the sensory characteristics of the fruit. Charges in fruit weight loss and juice composition occurred in the waxed fruits after 4 weeks of storage at 5C plus 1 week of simulated retail handling at 17C. Changes in internal fruit atmosphere were related to fruit flavor quality.

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Nihad Alsmairat, Carolina Contreras, James Hancock, Pete Callow, and Randolph Beaudry

for each clamshell by subtracting weight on removal from storage from initial weight. Fruit were removed from the clamshells and five fruit were removed for determination of ethanol and acetaldehyde content (see subsequently). Ten additional fruit

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Juan Pablo Zoffoli, Valentina Sanguedolce, Paulina Naranjo, and Carolina Contreras

, acetaldehyde, and ethylene concentration. The concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the fruit was determined according to Mitcham and McDonald (1993) . In brief, 10 mL of apple juice was obtained from ten apples per replicate. Two slices per apple were

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Jian Xin Shi, Joseph Riov, Raphael Goren, Eliezer E. Goldschmidt, and Ron Porat

Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) are two enzymes specifically required for ethanol fermentation. Pyruvate decarboxylase catalyzes the irreversible conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde (AA), and ADH subsequently

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Natta Laohakunjit, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, Frank B. Matta, Juan L. Silva, and William E. Holmes

characterized. Ethyl acetate (29.30%), acetaldehyde (21.62%), benzyl alcohol (11.93%), and 2-butenyl benzene (7.37%) were the major compounds in fresh samples and acetaldehyde (49.22%) and acetaldehyde (33.31%) were the main compounds in heated fresh sapodilla

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Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth Baldwin, Jack Hearn, Randy Driggers, and Ed Stover

aliphatic esters than did fruits harvested in November ( Tables 1 and 2 ). The aliphatic aldehydes in orange juice, which often contribute citrus-like fruity and green notes, include acetaldehyde, E -2-pentenal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal ( Perez

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Elizabeth A. Baldwin and Myrna O. Nisperos-Carriedo

Edible lipid and composite films were tested for their ability to retain flavor volatiles in `Pineapple' orange fruits stored at 21° using a headspace analysis technique. Volatiles, considered to be important to fresh orange flavor, were quantified and acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate and methyl butyrate increased progressively during storage in coated fruits. Acetaldehyde increased by the second day of storage in uncoated fruits but declined thereafter, `Sunny' tomato fruits were harvested at the green or breaker stage of maturity and ripened at 32.5, 21.0 and 12.9°C. Some fruit from the higher and lower storage temperatures were moved to 21° after one week. In most cases major or important flavor volatiles were highest in fruit transferred to or continuously stored at 21.0°C followed by 12.9 and 32.5°C. Fruit harvested at the breaker stage generally had higher volatile levels compared to those harvested green.

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Elizabeth A. Baldwin and Myrna O. Nisperos-Carriedo

Edible lipid and composite films were tested for their ability to retain flavor volatiles in `Pineapple' orange fruits stored at 21° using a headspace analysis technique. Volatiles, considered to be important to fresh orange flavor, were quantified and acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate and methyl butyrate increased progressively during storage in coated fruits. Acetaldehyde increased by the second day of storage in uncoated fruits but declined thereafter, `Sunny' tomato fruits were harvested at the green or breaker stage of maturity and ripened at 32.5, 21.0 and 12.9°C. Some fruit from the higher and lower storage temperatures were moved to 21° after one week. In most cases major or important flavor volatiles were highest in fruit transferred to or continuously stored at 21.0°C followed by 12.9 and 32.5°C. Fruit harvested at the breaker stage generally had higher volatile levels compared to those harvested green.