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William G. McGlynn and Siobhan Reilly

Watermelons were dipped in either 1000 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution or in deionized water, dried, then cut into chunks of ≈83 × 152 × 51 mm. These were sealed into plastic containers and stored at either 2, 4, or 8 °C. Samples were removed after 3, 7, and 10 days for microbial and quality tests. Chlorine dip reduced average aerobic plate counts by ≈3 log cycles and average coliform counts by nearly 2 log cycles. This may have significant implications for food safety and off-flavor development. The difference in microbial counts persisted for ≈7 days. No clear effect from storage temperature was seen. A trend for lower temperatures to preserve red hue was observed in objective color tests. Texture tests revealed a trend for all melons to become firmer during storage. No clear patterns with respect to storage temperature or sanitizing dip were seen.

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Duane W. Greene and James R. Schupp

AVG was evaluated for its effect on controlling preharvest drop and influencing ripening of `McIntosh' apples in Maine and Massachusetts. AVG consistently and effectively retarded preharvest drop. AVG was superior to NAA and comparable to daminozide in drop control. Dilute or 2× applications were more effective than applications made at lower water volumes. One application of AVG made 4 weeks before anticipated normal harvest was more effective in controlling preharvest drop than split applications of the same amount made earlier or later. In general, AVG delayed ripening as assessed by a retardation in the development of red color, maintenance of flesh firmness, delayed degradation of starch, and a delayed onset of the ethylene climacteric. We conclude that AVG is an effective drop control compound that is also useful as a management tool to extend the harvest window for blocks of `McIntosh' that would otherwise ripen simultaneously. Chemical names used: aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide, Alar).

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S.R. Drake, D.C. Elfving, M.A. Drake, T.A. Eisele, S.L. Drake, and D.B. Visser

This study was conducted over two crop seasons using `Scarletspur Delicious' and `Gale Gala' apple trees (Malus ×domestica). The bioregulators aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), ethephon (ETH), and 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) were applied at various times before or after harvest. Fruit response was evaluated at harvest and after regular atmosphere (RA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage [2.0% oxygen (O2) and <2.0% carbon dioxide (CO2) at 0 °C] and quality of whole and juice apple products evaluated. AVG reduced starch loss and ethylene production, enhanced firmness, and reduced cracking in `Gale Gala,' but reduced sensory acceptance of apples and apple juice. ETH intensified starch loss, ethylene production, and reduced firmness, but did not affect `Gale Gala' fruit cracking. AVG followed by ETH reduced starch loss, ethylene production, and cracking and maintained firmness. This combination also aided in sensory acceptance of apples but reduced sensory preference of apple juice. Exposure to postharvest MCP improved flesh firmness retention and reduced ethylene production after both RA and CA storage. MCP either favored or reduced sensory acceptance of whole apples, depending on the particular season, but reduced sensory preference of apple juice. Sensory scores for `Scarletspur Delicious' apples were more strongly modified by bioregulators than were `Gale Gala' apples.

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Renae E. Moran

The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) for increasing effectiveness of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for maintaining firmness and preventing scald in `McIntosh' and `Cortland' apples (Malus ×domestica). AVG and 1-MCP used together maintained `McIntosh' apple firmness more than 1-MCP used alone after 120 or 200 days of controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage. AVG and 1-MCP can be used to maintain firmness of `McIntosh' when internal ethylene concentration (IEC) at harvest is as high as 240 μL·L-1, but CA storage life is limited to 4 months. AVG was not effective at increasing efficacy of 1-MCP on `Cortland' when IEC at harvest was not significantly different between AVG-treated and untreated fruit and IEC was less than 2 μL·L-1. AVG increased efficacy of 1-MCP on `Cortland' when IEC was 36 μL·L-1 in untreated fruit compared to undetectable in AVG treated fruit. 1-MCP prevented scald of `Cortland' in 1 year and reduced it to 5% or less in another year when fruit were stored 120 days. 1-MCP reduced `Cortland' scald to 34% or less after 200 days of storage.

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Bruce W. Wood, Leonardo Lombardini, and Richard J. Heerema

. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) {[S]-trans-2-amino-4-(2-aminoethoxy)-3-butenoic acid hydrochloride, a naturally occurring plant growth regulator produced by fermentation; formulated as ReTain® at 15% a.i.; EPA Reg. No. 73049-45; Valent BioSciences, Libertyville, IL}, is a

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Bruce W. Wood

fermentation; formulated as ReTain at 15% a.i.; EPA Reg. No. 73049-45; Valent BioSciences, Libertyville, IL}, an ethylene inhibitor, can reduce or prevent drop in certain situations ( Wood et al., 2009 ). AVG, formulated as ReTain, possesses potential as a

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Hiroaki Ito, Takahiro Hayashi, Masaki Hashimoto, Katsuro Miyagawa, Saori Nakamura, Youichi Mizuta, and Susumu Yazawa

. Preserved flowers were first developed in 1991, and are prepared from fresh flowers by replacing their internal moisture with polyethylene glycol ( de Winter-Scailteur, 1991 ). These processed flowers can retain their fresh texture and flexibility for

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Timothy K. Broschat

of the southeastern United States. Potassium deficiency can cause premature leaf senescence and limits the number of leaves that a palm will retain within its canopy ( Broschat, 2010 ). Visible symptoms vary among species, but typically include

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Terry Bates and Justin Morris

density, and leaf area to crop weight ratios ( Howell, 2001 ). Increasing yield at acceptable juice soluble solids. Adjusting retained nodes per vine through pruning to influence vine vegetative and reproductive growth has been a long-studied management

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Hiroshi Iwanami, Shigeki Moriya, Nobuhiro Kotoda, Sae Takahashi, and Kazuyuki Abe

the regression curve. To estimate the degree to which cold storage retains firmness compared with that at shelf life temperature, we made a regression model that is expressed in the subsequent equation. A parameter that expressed the effect of