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Jessica Gaus Barb, Dennis J. Werner, and Shyamalrau P. Tallury

Skyrocket’; and 3) determine the absolute nuclear 2C DNA content of diploid and tetraploid plants using flow cytometry. Materials and Methods Plant material. Diploid accessions of Stokesia (‘Alba’, ‘Colorwheel’, ‘Honeysong Purple’, ‘Mary

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Kang Hee Cho, Seo Jun Park, Su Jin Kim, Se Hee Kim, Han Chan Lee, Mi Young Kim, and Jae An Chun

protection of plant cultivars and for practical breeding purposes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA markers have become useful in identifying cultivars, analyzing provenance studies, evaluating genetic diversity, and identifying the locations of

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Xiao-min Liu, Xin-zhi Zhang, Yi-min Shi, and Dong-qin Tang

resources ( Franco et al., 2001 ; Zhang and Dai, 2010 ). The methods for analysis of genetic diversity in plants were well developed in the last decades, commonly based on the morphological characteristics, seed proteins, isozymes, and DNA markers ( Gepts

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Hamidou F. Sakhanokho and Nurul Islam-Faridi

about the genetics of C. obcordata . For this reason, we decided to determine the chromosome number using a modern protoplast technique to spread root tip chromosomes, nuclear DNA content and base composition using flow cytometry, and the location of

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Mariem Bouhadida, Juan P. Martín, Gennady Eremin, Jorge Pinochet, María Á. Moreno, and Yolanda Gogorcena

Ingram. At present, biochemical (isoenzyme) and molecular (DNA analysis) approaches allow a more accurate estimate of genetic affinities and evolutionary relatedness among Prunus taxa that permits a comparison with traditional classifications

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Mark Hubbard, John Kelly, Albert Abbott, and Robert Ballard

To protect plant patents, rose breeders would benefit from a reliable and sensitive method for differentiating cultivars at the genetic level. Rcombinant DNA technologies are being employed to characterize individual DNA structure of numerous rose cultivars. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) are being studied to develop a characteristic pattern, or fingerprint for each cultivar. DNA from various cultivars is restriction enzyme digested and the fragments separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The gel is Southern blotted and hybridized with probes from the rose DNA library to yield RFLPs. RFLPs are being located and will eventually result in a characteristic fingerprint for each cultivar.

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Eun Ju Cheong, Myong-Suk Cho, Seung-Chul Kim, and Chan-Soo Kim

deposited in the Ha Eun Herbarium, Sungkyunkwan University (Suwon, South Korea) for accessions with specimen numbers marked. The accessions without specimen numbers were not vouchered. DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, and

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Xiaobo Zhang, Derong Su, Luyi Ma, and Yan Zhao

amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker analysis ( Williams et al., 1990 ), based on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with arbitrary primers, is not influenced by the environment and is used effectively for analyzing genetic diversity in various grasses

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D.W. Lickfeldt, N.E. Hofmann, J.D. Jones, A.M. Hamblin, and T.B. Voigt

An efficient deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction procedure that yields large quantities of DNA would provide adequate DNA for a large number of different analytical procedures. This study was conducted to compare three DNA extraction procedures for cost, time efficiency, and DNA content while extracting DNA from Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Three students at the Univ. of Illinois with varying levels of DNA extraction experience conducted DNA extractions using Plant DNeasy™ Mini Kits, Plant DNAzol® Reagent, and a PEX/CTAB buffer. Costs varied significantly with cost (US$) per DNA sample of $3.04 for the DNeasy™ method, $0.99 for the DNAzol® method, and $0.39 for the PEX/CTAB extraction. The DNAzol® method was the fastest; although extracting 2.8 ng less DNA than the DNeasy™ method, it did not require the use of hazardous organic solvents, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were satisfactory for DNA fingerprinting of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars. The PEX/CTAB method, which did not include a tissue homogenization step, did not have reproducible banding patterns due to miniscule and inconsistent quantities of DNA extracted, or possibly due to inadequate purification. The investigator with the least DNA extraction experience was the slowest, while extracting 75% more DNA. All three methods are easily adapted to laboratories having personnel with different levels of experience. The DNAzol® Reagent method should save time and money, with reproducible results when many individual plant samples need to be identified. Chemical names used: potassium ethyl xanthogenate (PEX); cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)

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Masanori Honjo, Sono Kataoka, Susumu Yui, Masami Morishita, Miyuki Kunihisa, Takayoshi Yano, Megumi Hamano, and Hiromichi Yamazaki

American cultivars came from only 17 cytoplasmic sources. However, further tracing was impossible owing to incomplete records. Because chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is unaffected by changes in ploidy, which can complicate phylogenetic analysis, the genome is