Six grass species representing vegetative and seeded types of native, warm-season and cool-season grasses, and pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica) were evaluated in the greenhouse for resistance to root-feeding grubs of european chafer (Rhizotrogus majalis). Potted bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchlöe dactyloides), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and pennsylvania sedge grown in a greenhouse were infested at the root zone with 84 grubs per 0.1 m2 or 182 grubs per 0.1 m2. The effects on plant growth, root loss, survival, and weight gain of grubs were determined. Survival rates were similar for low and high grub densities. With comparable densities of grubs, root loss tended to be proportionately less in zoysiagrass and bermudagrass than in other species. European chafer grubs caused greater root loss at higher densities. Grub weight gain and percentage recovery decreased with increasing grub density, suggesting a food limitation even though root systems were not completely devoured. Bermudagrass root weight showed greater tolerance to european chafer grubs; another mechanism is likely involved for zoysiagrass. Variation in susceptibility of plant species to european chafer suggests that differences in the ability of the plants to withstand grub feeding damage may be amenable to improvement by plant selection and breeding.
Suleiman S. Bughrara, David R. Smitley, and David Cappaert
Shaoyun Lu, Zhongcheng Wang, Yuejing Niu, Zhenfei Guo, and Bingru Huang
Improving the drought tolerance of widely used bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon] is important for water conservation and producing quality turf with limited irrigation. Mutants of bermudagrass were generated using gamma-ray irradiation with an aim toward developing dwarf and drought-resistant bermudagrass. The objectives of this study were to compare morphological characteristics between radiation-induced mutants and the wild-type of bermudagrass and to determine antioxidant responses associated with changes in drought resistance in the bermudagrass mutants. Three mutant lines (7-9, 10-5, and 10-12) that exhibit slow growth and good turf quality were chosen for this study. Plants were exposed to drought stress by withholding irrigation in a greenhouse. Mutant lines had lower canopy height, shorter internodes, and shorter leaves than the wild type under well-watered conditions. Under drought stress, all three dwarf mutant lines maintained higher relative water content and lower ion leakage and malondialdehyde content than the wild type. Antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in response to the drought stress in the mutant lines and the wild type, whereas nonenzymatic antioxidants increased under drought stress. Compared with the wild type, higher enzyme activities and antioxidant contents were maintained in mutant lines under drought stress. Our results indicated that bermudagrass mutants induced by gamma radiation exhibited dwarf characteristics and improved drought resistance, which was associated with maintenance of higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities and nonenzymatic antioxidant contents.
Maurizio Giolo, Stefano Macolino, Erica Barolo, and Filippo Rimi
, D. Freund, S. Fiehn, O. Heyer, A.G. Hincha, D.K. 2006 Natural genetic variation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis Plant Physiol. 142 98 112 Harlvonson, W.L. Guertin, P. 2003 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. USGS weeds in the Westproject: Status of
Mingying Xiang, Justin Q. Moss, Dennis L. Martin, Kemin Su, Bruce L. Dunn, and Yanqi Wu
Bermudagrass is native to Africa, widely distributed, and commonly found in tropical and subtemperate areas ( Taliaferro et al., 2004 ). It is important for forage, turfgrass use, and soil and water conservation. Hybrid bermudagrass [ Cynodon
Aaron J. Patton, Jon M. Trappe, and Michael D. Richardson
Covers, mulches, and erosion-control blankets are often used to establish turf. There are reports of various effects of seed cover technology on the germination and establishment of warm-season grasses. The objective of this study was to determine how diverse cover technologies influence the establishment of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) from seed. Plots were seeded in June 2007 or July 2008 with the various turfgrass species and covered with cover technologies, including Curlex, Deluxe, and Futerra products, jute, Poly Jute, polypropylene, straw, straw blanket, Thermal blanket, and the control. Establishment was reduced in straw- and polyethylene-covered plots due to decreased photosythentically active radiation penetration or excessive temperature build-up, respectively. Overall, Deluxe and Futerra products, jute, and Poly Jute allowed for the highest establishment of these seeded warm-season grasses.
Christopher R. Johnston and Gerald M. Henry
., 2007b; Henry et al., 2008 ). Summer applications of MSMA have been reported to cause reductions in turf quality in both ‘Tifway’ hybrid bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon × Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) and common bermudagrass [ C. dactylon (L
Patrick E. McCullough and William Nutt
Bermudagrass [ Cynodon spp. (L.) Rich.] is the most popular turfgrass planted in warm-humid regions ( Beard, 1973 ). Improved seeded cultivars of common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] have color, quality, and texture comparable to
Thomas E. Eickhoff, Tiffany M. Heng-Moss, and Frederick P. Baxendale
planted in newly developed areas, including southern regions of the United States. As these buffalograss stands experience chinch bug damage, B. occiduus will likely seek out secondary hosts in close proximity, such as bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L
Gerald Henry, Rebecca Grubbs, Chase Straw, Kevin Tucker, and Jared Hoyle
revenue and property values. Investigation into methods for reducing turfgrass water consumption while maintaining quality may provide a partial solution to this specific problem. Hybrid bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis
Joe E. Toler, Thomas G. Willis, Alan G. Estes, and Lambert B. McCarty
. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted on a common bermudagrass golf course driving range in Anderson, S.C. Studies 3 and 4 were conducted on a hybrid bermudagrass ( Cynodon transvaalensis × Cynodon dactylon ‘Tifway’) golf course fairway in Easley, S.C. Soil