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Florence A. Becot, Terence L. Bradshaw, and David S. Conner

for growers and help them maintain a competitive position in the marketplace ( Peck and Miles, 2015 ). An area of inquiry to reduce labor costs and address the barrier of access to adequate labor in is mechanical harvesting. Most of the cider apples

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Christina H. Hagerty, Alfonso Cuesta-Marcos, Perry Cregan, Qijian Song, Phil McClean, and James R. Myers

determinate growth habit ( fin ) were retained from segregating families. Single plant families homozygous for Fin were discarded because essentially all contemporary snap bean cultivars are determinate to facilitate mechanical harvest. The F 4

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Ryan J. Hayes, Mark A. Trent, Beiquan Mou, Ivan Simko, Samantha J. Gebben, and Carolee T. Bull

- to 213-cm wide (80 to 84 inches) raised beds with 24 to 32 seed lines per bed ( Nolte, 2010 ; Smith et al., 2009 ). The crop is mechanically harvested when the first four true leaves are ≈5 to 13 cm (2 to 5 inches) long, typically 20 to 30 d after

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Robert Conway Hochmuth, Marina Burani-Arouca, and Charles Edward Barrett

et al., 2004 ). Alternaria can directly impact yield by reducing the photosynthetic leaf area and can limit mechanical harvesting because this fungus can cause 50% leaf loss ( Paret, 2019 ). This disease was managed by weekly fungicide applications

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Coral Ortiz, Antonio Torregrosa, Enrique Ortí, and Sebastià Balasch

by means of a gear crank mechanism. The amount of detached fruit during mechanical harvesting was estimated by visual control. According to the number of detached fruit counted after shaking each branch, the intensity of the following branch shake on

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Kendra M. Blaker and James W. Olmstead

particular interest as a result of their enhanced eating quality, prolonged postharvest life, and potential value for mechanical harvesting for fresh-marketed blueberries ( Mehra et al., 2013 ; Padley, 2005 ; Takeda et al., 2013 ). Several cellular

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Stephen J. Stringer, Donna A. Marshall, Blair J. Sampson, and James M. Spiers

of cultivars best suited for mechanical harvest and for longer shelf life have a high percentage of dry picking scars. Of the cultivars evaluated, Southland had the most berries with dry picking scars (90.6%) and Regale had the fewest (35.7%) ( Figs

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Christopher S. Cramer

’ instead of mechanical harvesting. In southern New Mexico, intermediate-day onion cultivars that possess red dry outer scales are often hand harvested as these bulbs are sold as fresh-market onions in which mechanical damage is detrimental to sales and

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Youping Sun, Sarah A. White, David Mann, and Jeffrey Adelberg

plants of Veratrum californicum , rhizomes with attached bulbs and roots, were selected for uniformly large size from a wild population of thousands dug in a meadow ≈1000 m 2 (mechanically harvested for the purpose of pharmacological research) in

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Michael Dossett, Chaim Kempler, and Hugh Daubeny

other raspberries and hang straight out or slightly down. Despite this, lateral angle does not appear to interfere with mechanical harvesting of fruit, and fruit of BC 90-19-34 detach readily when machine-harvested and maintain good cohesion despite