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Margaret A. Cliff, Kareen Stanich, and Peter M.A. Toivonen

supplement as colorless and odorless ( Cultiva, 2015 ), no objective information is available on its impact on flavor, textural attributes (crispness, firmness, and juiciness), and visual characteristics (stem browning, pitting, and pebbling), particularly

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Hui-Juan Zhou, Zheng-Wen Ye, and Ming-Shen Su

fruit quality, and also had an important influence on the development of fruit flavor and color ( Xi et al., 2014 ). Sugar metabolism and signal transduction pathways were closely related to the senescence of fruits and were vital in fruit flavor

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Angeline M. Peters and Aart van Amerongen

In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between levels of bitter sesquiterpene lactones and sensory evaluation of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). The levels of two bitter sesquiterpene lactones—lactucopicrin and lactucin-like sesquiterpene lactones—were measured by ELISA in raw and cooked chicory samples from several cultivars. Data were compared with the results of a sensory evaluation on the flavor attributes bitterness, typical chicory flavor, and total flavor intensity of identical chicory samples. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the levels of lactucin-like sesquiterpene lactones were significantly related to bitterness (P = 0.006) and total flavor intensity (P = 0.03) attributes in raw chicory samples. When cooked chicory samples were evaluated, the levels of lactucin-like sesquiterpene lactones were significantly related to bitterness (P = 0.002), typical chicory flavor (P < 0.001), and total flavor intensity (P = 0.009) attributes, while lactucopicrin levels were related to bitterness (P = 0.002) only. These results show that the ELISA can be useful to predict flavor attributes in chicory.

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J.W. Scott

Plant breeders would welcome new tools to improve selection efficiency for complex traits such as improved flavor, especially since this is only one of many complex traits that a breeder has to integrate into improved cultivars. Using tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) flavor as an example, a major obstacle to improvement is the lack of measurable traits to select for. It has been suggested that improved flavor can be achieved by increasing the soluble solids and acidity. Both of these traits are not simply inherited, but if fruit sampling is adequate, they can be measured and selected. Studies have located several molecular markers linked to high soluble solids, but some are also linked to undesirable traits such as small fruit size or low yield. Thus, the molecular markers are not being used in breeding programs at this point. Moreover, other studies have shown that flavor is also influenced by an array of aromatic volatiles. The importance of some of the volatiles has been reported, but the volatile profile that consistently results in superior tomato flavor is still not known. Molecular manipulation of a biochemical pathway has been done to increase the concentration of one volatile with positive results. However, this manipulation does not solve the overall flavor improvement problem. Furthermore, environment plays a profound role in tomato flavor, and this aspect needs to be dealt with if a branded high-quality product is to be successfully marketed. There are also flavor issues related to fruit firmness, pedicel type, and plant habit. In summary, molecular techniques may be useful in providing some incremental improvements for complex traits like tomato flavor, but more knowledge about targets to manipulate is required. There does not appear to be any cheap or easy solutions. If molecular approaches are to be commercially successful, they will have to be tied closely to a breeding program dedicated to the same goal.

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Amanda J. Vance, Patrick Jones, and Bernadine C. Strik

, skin toughness, and TSS (Brix). The berries were also tasted to determine the presence or absence of salty flavor from CaCl 2 applications, which had been noted in previous work ( Hanson et al., 1993 ; Montealegre and Valdes, 1993 ). Average berry

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Kathleen Kelley, Jeffrey Hyde, James Travis, and Robert Crassweller

-Harman et al., 1997 ), which can be an indication of eating quality. However, this is an imperfect indication because apples with similar appearances may have very different sensory characteristics such as aroma, texture, and flavor. Therefore, it is

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Leonardo Lombardini, Tina M. Waliczek, and Jayne M. Zajicek

and sanitizing, cracking, and separating kernels from the shells (shelling). The shelling process accelerates the oxidation process, thus reducing the shelf life of pecans ( Baldwin and Wood, 2006 ). Rancidity and development of off-flavors are common

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Paul M. Lyrene

Cyanococcus (no anther awns) from section Batodendron (anther awns present). The berries were examined for presence or absence of sclerids, which are conspicuous in V. arboreum and not noticeable in highbush blueberry. Fruit color, flavor, picking scar

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Justin D. Butcher, Kevin M. Crosby, Kil Sun Yoo, Bhimanagouda S. Patil, A.M.H. Ibrahim, Daniel I. Leskovar, and John L. Jifon

chocolate ( Crosby, 2008 ). Some Habanero peppers supply a unique fruity flavor and distinct aroma making them popular additions to various dishes ( Andrews, 1995 ; Crosby, 2008 ; Greenleaf, 1986 ). Moreover, Habanero peppers are gaining popularity as a

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Marisa M. Wall, Kate A. Nishijima, Lisa M. Keith, and Mike A. Nagao

tolerated by a commodity can induce physiological disorders or anaerobic respiration and off-flavor development ( Kader et al., 1989 ). Optimum temperatures must be maintained during postharvest handling to maximize shelf life and fruit quality, especially