Two new seedless grape cultivars were released in 1999 from the grape breeding program at the Univ. of Arkansas. `Jupiter' is the fifth release from the program. `Jupiter' is blue-fruited, has large berries, non-slipskin texture, and a mild muscat flavor. Yields of `Jupiter' were very good in replicated trials, and hardiness is also adequate for production in all areas of the South. `Jupiter' ripens 5 days later than `Venus', but earlier than `Mars' or `Reliance'. `Neptune' is the sixth release and first white-fruited cultivar from the program. It has medium-sized berries, large clusters, non-slipskin texture, and a mild, fruity flavor. Yields of `Neptune' were moderate in replicated trials. `Neptune' ripens 17 days later than `Venus' and 3 days earlier than `Mars'. Both cultivars were developed and evaluated with a commercial cultural system including routine fungicide applications, and fungicides will be required to reliably produce these cultivars. Neither of these cultivars has been tested in a Pierce's Disease region of the United States, and it is not anticipated that either will have resistance to this disease.
J.R. Clark and J.N. Moore
Valdomiro A.B. de Souza, David H. Byrne, and Jeremy F. Taylor
Thirteen peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit characteristics were investigated for 3 years, 1993, 1994, and 1995, in College Station, Texas, to determine heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations, and predicted response to selection. Seedlings of 108 families resulting from crosses among 42 peach cultivars and selections were used in the evaluations. A mixed linear model, with years treated as fixed and additive genotypes as random factors, was employed to analyze the data. Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) was used to estimate fixed effects. Restricted maximum likelihood (REML) was used to estimate variance components, and a multiple trait model was used to estimate genetic and phenotypic covariances between traits. Genetic and phenotypic correlations ≥0.65 and <0.30 were considered strong or very strong and weak, respectively. Date of ripening, fruit development period (FDP) and date of full bloom had the highest heritability (h2) estimates, 0.94, 0.91, and 0.78, respectively. Fruit cheek diameter and titratable acidity (h2 = 0.31) were the traits with the lowest estimates. Fruit development period, fruit blush, and date of ripening had the highest predicted selection responses, whereas fruit suture, fruit cheek, L/W12 (ratio fruit length to average fruit diameters), and fruit tip had the lowest values. Most genetic correlations were ≥0.30 and were, in general, much higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations. All four measures of fruit size were genetically and phenotypically very strongly correlated. Important genetic correlation estimates were also observed for date of ripening with FDP (ra = 0.93), date of ripening and FDP with fruit blush (ra = -0.77, ra = -0.72), SS (percent soluble solids) (ra = 0.63, ra = 0.62) and TA (ra = 0.55, ra = 0.64), and SS with TA (ra = -0.56). Direct selection practiced solely for early ripening and short FDP is expected to have a greater effect on correlated traits than direct selection for early bloom and large fruit mass.
D. Scott NeSmith
, thus a reward for the risk. Along with very early-ripening fruit, Georgia Dawn™ has additional favorable attributes. In most evaluations, Georgia Dawn™ had the best flavor as compared with the other cultivars, especially to ‘Rebel’ ( Table 5 ). ‘Rebel
D. Scott NeSmith
A new southern highbush blueberry cultivar named `Rebel' was released in 2005 by The University of Georgia. It is a very early season cultivar with large fruit having a medium to light blue color, and a small, dry picking scar. `Rebel' berry firmness is good, while flavor is only average. The new cultivar flowers 3 to 4 days before `Star' and ripens 6 to 9 days before `Star' in south and middle Georgia. `Rebel' plants are highly vigorous, very precocious and have a spreading bush habit with a medium crown. Yield has been similar to or greater than `Star' in south Georgia. Leafing has been excellent, even following mild winters. Rebel has an estimated chill requirement of 400 to 450 hours (<7 °C). Propagation is very easily accomplished using softwood cuttings. Plants of `Rebel' are self-fertile to a degree, but should be planted with other southern highbush blueberry cultivars with a similar time of bloom for cross-pollination (`Emerald' and `Star' suggested). `Rebel' is new, so planting on a trial basis is recommended. `Rebel' requires a license to propagate. For licensing information and/or a list of licensed propagators, contact the Georgia Seed Development Commission, 2420 S. Milledge Avenue, Athens, GA 30606; or visit their web-site at www.gsdc.com.
D. Scott NeSmith and Arlen D. Draper
A new southern highbush blueberry cultivar named `Camellia' was released in 2005 by The University of Georgia and the USDA–ARS. `Camellia' is a hybrid containing mostly Vaccinium corymbosum and a small amount of V. darrowi. The new cultivar was selected in 1996 at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, Ga. from a cross of MS-122 × MS-6, and was tested as TH-621 in plantings at Alapaha, Ga. beginning in 1998. `Camellia' has an estimated chill requirement of 450 to 500 hours (<7 °C). It is an early- to mid-season cultivar, having berries that are large, with a very light blue color, and a small, dry picking scar. Berry firmness is good and flavor is very good. `Camellia' flowers 5 to 8 days after `Star' and `O'Neal' in south Georgia, and ripens 4 to 9 days after `Star', and with `O'Neal'. Plants are highly vigorous, with strong cane growth and an open, upright bush habit and a narrow crown. Yields have been similar to `Star' and greater than `O'Neal'. `Camellia' should be planted with other southern highbush blueberry cultivars with a similar time of bloom for cross-pollination (`Star' and `O'Neal' suggested). It is recommended on a trial basis at this time. `Camellia' requires a license to propagate. For licensing information and/or a list of licensed propagators, contact the Georgia Seed Development Commission, 2420 S. Milledge Avenue, Athens, GA 30606; or visit their website at www.gsdc.com.
The best time to harvest fresh blueberries in Florida is 1 April to 15 May. Weather during this period is normally favorable for harvest: low rainfall, low humidity, warm, sunny days, and cool nights, and supplies of fresh blueberries from other producing areas are low. To ripen high-quality blueberries in April, the plants must flower in February and must have a full canopy of leaves to support the developing crop in March and April. Observations of thousands of blueberry seedlings and selections over the past 25 years in Florida have indicated that blooming and leafing time are affected by the chilling requirement and heat requirement of the variety and also by environmental factors. Factors that increase plant vigor (high soil fertility, ample moisture, and young plants) cause the plants to flower earlier in the spring. Flower buds that do not open by 15 Mar. in north Florida frequently abort. The timing and extent of this physiological bud abortion varies with cultivar. Some southern highbush cultivars leaf before they flower. Others flower before they leaf. The ideal blueberry variety for north Florida would have a very low chill requirement, a high heat requirement to prevent January flowering, and a short flowering-to-ripening interval.
D. Scott NeSmith
Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Rebel’ is a very early-season blueberry having favorable fruit attributes, especially size and scar. The cultivar also has excellent plant vigor. Origin and Description ‘Rebel’ was selected in 2000 at the Georgia
Jose Martínez-Calvo and María L. Badenes
-to-medium chilling requirements, good agronomic characteristics, very good productivity, and good fruit quality at its time of ripening. The cultivar has the characteristics of a nonmelting peach similar to ‘Jonia’ or ‘Egea’, but it ripens 1 month earlier. ‘Presivac
Hae Keun Yun, Kyo Sun Park, Jeong Ho Roh, Yong Bum Kwack, Ji Hae Jun, Seok Tae Jeong, Han Ik Jang, Seung Heui Kim, and Yong Uk Shin
‘Jinok’ (‘Delaware’ × ‘Campbell Early’) is a new table grape cultivar showing early-ripening berries with uniform coloring of skin and high quality. ‘Jinok’ has a mean bud burst on 11 Apr., flowering on 24 May, and fruit maturity on 23 Aug. The
John R. Clark and James N. Moore
`Jupiter' is the fifth table grape cultivar released from the Univ. of Arkansas grape breeding program. `Jupiter' originated from a cross of Ark. 1258 × Ark. 1672 made in 1981. The original seedling vine was selected in 1984, and `Jupiter' was tested as Ark. 1985. `Jupiter' was tested at two locations in Arkansas (Fayetteville and Clarksville) and at West Lafayette, Ind. Fruit of `Jupiter' are reddish-blue, and berry weight averaged 5.5 g over 12 years of evaluation at Clarksville. Fruit are seedless, have a non-slipskin texture, ripen early mid-season, and averaged 19.8% soluble solids. Flavor is a mild muscat, a noteworthy character of this new cultivar. Clusters averaged 257 g over 12 years and are well-filled. Yields of `Jupiter' have been very good, exceeding 29 t/ha at Clarksville. Hardiness of `Jupiter' was greater than `Einset Seedless', `Himrod', or `Vanessa Seedless', but less than `Mars' or `Reliance' at West Lafayette. `Jupiter' is recommended for trial where other other eastern U.S. table grape cultivars are adapted.