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Shisheng Li, Qiufang Xiong, Jingcai Li, Yuanping Fang, and Jun Xiang

occurrence of pests and diseases to an extent; ‘Luoxue No. 1’ also has tuberous roots that resembled those of the ‘Wuqing’ radish ( Fig. 1B ). Fig. 1. Aboveground ( A ) and underground ( B ) parts of the dual-use radish vegetable organs. Description and

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Daike Tian, Ken M. Tilt, Jeff L. Sibley, Floyd M. Woods, and Fenny Dane

height and emerging leaf number were measured on 20 Aug. 2005 when plants reached maximum height. Underground parts were harvested on 1 Jan. 2006. Because only fresh underground weight and propagule number were influenced by planting dates within March in

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Yukihiro Fujime

a perennial plant, growing 40 to 100 cm high. Because the flowers rarely set seeds, mioga is propagated by the underground stems. The plant is killed by frost, but the underground stems are hardy to cold. The optimum temperature for growing is 20 to

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Mordecai J. Jaffe and A. Carl Leopold

, 1986 ; Iziro, 1983 ; Iziro and Hori, 1983a ; Jacoby and Halevy, 1970 ; Putz, 1996b ). Among the types of plant movement, the contractile movement of roots in causing underground movement of plant parts is a novel observation, although it has been

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Sea Yeat Choon and Phebe Ding

separate leafless peduncle arising from the underground rhizome ( Choon and Ding, 2016 ). The height of the leaf stalk is ≈3–4 m whereas the peduncle length is ≈0.7 m. The torch ginger inflorescence is composed of involucral and floral bracts. The

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Jianjun Zhang, Wei Zhu, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Yongming Fan, and Xiaonan Yu

for Floriculture (long. 116°39′ E, lat. 40°17′ N; Beijing, China). The daily minimum and maximum temperatures in the experimental area are presented in Fig. 2 . Fig. 1. Paeonia lactiflora ‘Dafugui’. (a) Flower in full bloom; (b) underground buds

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Seong-Tae Choi, Doo-Sang Park, Seong-Mo Kang, and Seong-Koo Kang

underground water per container a day, starting at 1 L in early spring, gradually increasing to 6 L in midsummer, and then decreasing to 3 L at the end of the experiment. Treatments. The treatment was arranged in a two × three factorial design with six single

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Naofumi Hiehata, Yoshihiko Sato, Shinji Fukuda, Yukiko Tominaga, Osamu Terai, and Hirohisa Nesumi

Loquat canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae , attacks the buds, shoots, leaves, fruit, and underground parts of the loquat tree ( Morita, 1988 ; Mukoo, 1952 ; Suga et al., 2007 ) and has a detrimental effect on vegetative

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Xiaoya Cai, Laurie E. Trenholm, Jason Kruse, and Jerry B. Sartain

dry matter or greater. In a study by Monroe et al. (1969) , growth, clipping weight, weight of underground plant parts (root and rhizomes) and tops, vigor score, tiller counts, and blade width were increased by K application in kentucky bluegrass

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Junhuo Cai, Junjun Fan, Xuying Wei, and Lu Zhang

temperature only. Second, during dormancy, L. radiata bulbs make up most of the dry weight and the roots have the strongest vitality (in addition to a high biomass). Thus, only the aboveground parts of the plant are dormant; the underground parts (the bulb