). Their flowers bloom from winter to spring, in a range of colors, forms, fragrances, and sizes. Until fairly recently, camellia flower coloration was restricted to red, purple, pink, and white. Yellow is a long-sought-after color. Traditional breeding
Xiao-Juan Wei, Jinlin Ma, Kai-Xiang Li, Xiao-Jing Liang, and Haiying Liang
Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt, and Roberto G. Lopez
state for photoperiod-sensitive species. Far-red radiation has a significant effect in the processes of stem elongation and flowering ( Downs and Thomas, 1982 ). For example, a deficiency in far-red radiation has often been found to delay flower
Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan
types, or patterned types ( Kamemoto and Kuehnle, 1996 ). Standard types have a uniform color and may be red, pink, orange, coral, white, green, or purple. Obake types are bicolors with green at the lobes and another color at the center of the spathe
Xiao-Juan Wei, Xiao-Jing Liang, Jin-Lin Ma, Kai-Xiang Li, and Haiying Liang
aphids ( T. aurantii ) are the primary insect pests observed. The purple flower color of Camellia ‘Maozi’ is unique, distinctively different from its parents, which have red (RHS# FF3030) and yellow (RHS# FFFF00) colors, respectively. Floral buds start
Iftikhar Ahmad, John M. Dole, and Frank A. Blazich
’ lisianthus ( Eustoma grandiflorum ), ‘Double Eagle’ African Gold Coin Series marigold ( Tagetes erecta ), a major flower species in the Indo-Pak sub-continent, and ‘Deep Red’ Benary’s Giant Series zinnia ( Zinnia elegans ), one of the top three field
Rebeccah A. Waterworth and Robert J. Griesbach
Recently, several new Calibrachoa La Llave & Lexarza (Solanaceae Juss.) cultivars have been developed with novel red and blue flowers. Most wild species of Calibrachoa have purple flowers. The differences in color were not due to anthocyanin composition, but rather to vacuolar pH. The pH of the red-flowered cultivar was 4.8 while that of the blue-flowered cultivar was 5.6. The wild purple-flowered species had an intermediate pH of 5.0. These data suggest that different pH and pigment genes may be introgressed into other Calibrachoa species to increase cultivar diversity.
Wayne A. Mackay and Narendra Sankhla
Phlox paniculata `John Fanick' produces long lasting, dense terminal flower heads and has potential as a specialty cut flower. Quality and postharvest display life of cut flower heads depends primarily on ethylene-induced flower abscission, flower bud opening, and maintenance and development of flower color during vase life. Late events, such as flower and leaf senescence may also be detrimental to flower quality. In the control treatment, the initial red-pink and purple flower color changes to violet blue in 3 to 4 days, and may lose >50% of initial anthocyanins. Incorporating sucrose (SUC) in the vase solution not only maintained >75% of the initial floral pigments, but also promoted opening of additional flowers and anthocyanin development. Although both ethylene biosynthesis (AOA, ReTain, a.i. AVG) and action inhibitors (STS, 1-MCP) delayed flower abscission, STS and 1-MCP were relatively more effective than AOA and AVG. As in the control, newly opened flowers remained very small when treated with ethylene inhibitors, did not develop red-pink color, and exhibited only shades of violet blue color. Sucrose antagonized the effect of ethylene inhibitors. As such, the flowers in SUC+ethylene inhibitors treatments enlarged in size and developed a reddish-pink blue color. However, the flower quality in SUC alone was much superior than those in SUC+ethylene inhibitors. These results indicate that ethylene inhibitors, alone and in combination with SUC, were not of any additional value in improving postharvest performance and display life of cut phlox flower heads.
T.S. Krentz, B.K. Behe, V.V. Allen, and C.C. Montgomery
Buddleia sp., butterfly bush, is a large, arching shrub with spike-shaped inflorescences in a wide range of colors including pink, purple, yellow, and white. Our objective was to determine which cultivars of Buddleia had an acceptable postharvest life and potentially could be used as cut flowers. Stems of `Black Knight', `Charming Summer', `Empire Blue', `Lochinch', `Nanho Blue', `Nanho Purple', `Pink Delight', `Royal Red', `White Profusion', and `Sungold' were harvested when one-third to two-thirds of the florets had opened. Within 2 hours of harvest, flower stems were recut under water, placed in vases containing 10 g Floralife/liter, and placed in a simulated consumer environment. Daily fresh weight, open and total length of inflorescence, and inflorescence color were measured. `Charming Summer', `Pink Delight', `Royal Red', `Sungold', `Lochinch', `White Profusion', and `Nanho Blue' performed best.
Brent K. Harbaugh, Michelle L. Bell, and Rongna Liang
Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf). Shinn.] is emerging as an important cut flower in the United States while in European and Asian markets it is already listed among the top ten cut flowers. Many new cultivars have been released in the United States within the last 5 years, but comparative performance trials of these cultivars have been lacking. This trial evaluated 47 cultivars of lisianthus representing series (cultivar groups) that were marketed in the United States in 1998. Evaluations were made for rosetting, plug performance, cut-flower characteristics (vegetative and flowering attributes) as well as postharvest longevity of cut flowers. Significant differences among cultivars were found for all of the attributes evaluated. `Malibu Purple', `Catalina Blue Blush', and `Alice Pink' were selected as the best performers in the seedling (plug) stage since they had less than 5% rosettes, large leaves and a vigorous root system. Cultivars were placed in classes based on flower color, flower size, and number of petals (single or double flowers). Cultivars were ranked for each of the attributes and the total rank sum of all attributes (TRS) was used to select the best in class. Cultivars selected as best in class were `Malibu Purple', `Malibu Blue Blush', `Alice Purple', `Balboa Blue', `Avila Blue Rim', `Mellow Pink', `Flamenco Wine Red', `Flamenco Rose Rim', `Alice Pink', `Avila Rose' and `Echo Pink', `Alice White', and `Mariachi White'.
Richard O. Kelly, Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Rick K. Schoellhorn
Florida is one of the top wholesale producers of bedding plants, and in 2003 was ranked fourth in annual bedding plant production and fifth in potted pansy/viola production. Evaluation of pansy cultivars is vital for continued growth of the industry. We evaluated 210 cultivars of pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana) (164 new cultivars) in replicated class tests at the University of Florida's Gulf Coast Research and Education Center at Bradenton, Fla., from 2000–04 to determine the best-of-class and use them in future trials to compare against new entries in the same class. In this report, we provide objective plant measurements of vegetative and floral characteristics as well as subjective performance ratings. Subjective ratings were on a 1 to 7 scale with the highest rating of 7 for excellent. In general, overall performance ratings (combined foliage, flower, arthropod, and disease ratings) ≥5.5 were considered outstanding. Pansy cultivars were grouped into classes based on flower color and pattern. Best-of-class selections that had an outstanding overall performance rating in one or more contested trials, never falling below 5.0 in other contested trials, were: (black class) `Accord/Banner Black Beauty', (blue shades/tints class) `Nature Blue', (blue with blotch class) `Nature Ocean', (mix class) `Panola Clear Mixture', (pink shades/tints with blotch class) `Nature Pink Shades', [purple (dark), blue-violet with white cap class] `Nature Beacon', [purple (dark), blue-violet/white face with blotch class] `Panola Purple With Face', (purple with light eye class) `Baby Bingo Lavender Blue', (white class) `Nature White', (yellow class) `Nature Yellow', (yellow with blotch and purple, blue-violet cap class) `Iona Purple & Yellow With Blotch', (yellow with blotch and red cap class) `Bingo Red & Yellow', (yellow with blotch and red cap class) `Panola Yellow With Blotch', (yellow with dark veins class) `Whiskers Yellow'. We believe these cultivars would perform well in the southern U.S. or areas of the world with similar heat and cold hardiness zones.