The phytotoxic effects on the physiology of chili (Capsicum annum L. cv. Ancho San Luis) caused by four different insecticides were evaluated. Three commercial mixes (methyl azinfos, methyl parathion CE720, and metamidophos 600 LM), and an active ingredient alone (methamidophos) were assayed; water was used as the control. The main goal was to evaluate the insecticide effects on chili using four different doses; the mean dose, recommended on the label of the product (R), a half one (1/2R), 1.5 times (1.5R) and twice the recommended dose (2R). Three frequencies of application were applied; once a week, twice a week, and once every other week, for 6 weeks from the beginning of flowering. Phytotoxicity was evaluated measuring the response of some physiological traits, Chlorophyll Fluorescence (CF), Leaf Temperature (LT), Transpiration (Tr), and Stomatal Resistance (SR). CF was measured by means of a portable chorophyll fluorscence meter; LT, Tr, and SR were measured using a LI-Cor Porometer. The doses and frequencies used are all common in commercial chili fields in Mexico. Results showed that phytotoxicity caused by insecticides can be an important damage factor to the plants, something that can cause reduction of yields. CF was shown to be the most sensitive variable to evaluate the phytotoxicity caused by insecticides. Fruit malformation was observed in all treatments. Chlorophyll content was reduced up to 25%, on average. The phosphorate insecticides affected the physiological parameters more drastically than the others. Results evidence the irreversible crop damage caused by excessive insecticide applications.
J.L. Garcia-Hernandez, E. Troyo-Dieguez, H. Nolasco, H.G. Jones, and A. Ortega-Rubio
Michele A. Stanton, Joseph C. Scheerens, Richard C. Funt, and John R. Clark
We investigated the response of staminate and pistillate floral components of Prime-Jan™ and Prime-Jim™ primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) to three different growth chamber temperature regimes, 35.0/23.9 °C (HT), 29.4/18.3 °C (MT), and 23.9/12.8 °C (LT). Temperature was negatively related to flower size and morphological abnormalities in floral structures were evident in 41% and 98% of the MT- and HT-grown plants, respectively. The viability (stainability) of pollen from LT- and MT-grown Prime-Jan™ flowers exceeded 70%; that of Prime-Jim™ pollen was significantly reduced (<40%) by the MT regime. Pollen in-vitro germinability was negatively influenced by temperature but was unaffected by cultivar. LT-grown pollen held at 23.9 °C retained 63% of its original germinability over a 32-hour period; the germinability of LT-grown pollen held at 35.0 °C was decreased by 97% from its original level after 16 hours. Virtually all flowers cultured under HT conditions were male-sterile, exhibiting structural and/or sporogenous class abnormalities including petaloidy, malformation of tapetal cells, and microspores or failure of dehiscence. The duration of stigma receptivity, pistil density, and drupelet set were also negatively influenced by increasing temperature; values for these parameters of floral competency among control plants were reduced by 51%, 39%, and 76%, respectively, in flowers cultured under HT conditions. Herein, flowering and fruiting parameters and presumably the yield potential of Prime-Jan™ and Prime-Jim™ were adversely affected by increased temperature. However, assessment of their adaptative response to heat stress under field conditions awaits experimentation.
Jennifer K. Boldt and James E. Barrett
A daminozide plus chlormequat chloride tank mix spray was applied to six Coleus cultivars or breeding lines at different times during propagation. For UF 03-8-10 and `Coco Loco', plants sprayed on day 7 or day 10 were shorter than control plants at transplant, but plants sprayed on day 13 were not. Other cultivars did not respond to single applications. Five of the six cultivars responded to application on days 7 and 13. Plants of UF 03-8-3 and `Coco Loco' were significantly shorter than control plants at transplant. Plants of UF 03-8-10, UF 03-6-1, and UF 03-17-8 were shorter than control plants at 3 weeks after transplant. `Hurricane Louise' did not respond to the tank mix. A second study found a cultivar specific response to three chemical treatments applied as a spray on day 10 of propagation. At transplant, UF 03-8-10, UF 03-8-3, UF 03-6-1, and `Coco Loco' plants sprayed with the tank mix at 2500 plus 1500 mg·L-1, respectively, were significantly shorter than the control plants. A uniconazole spray at 2 mg·L-1 reduced elongation in UF 03-8-10, UF 03-8-3, and UF 03-6-1, compared to control plants. Ethephon at 250 mg·L-1 reduced elongation in UF 03-8-10, UF 03-8-3, and `Coco Loco' plants. None of the chemical sprays reduced elongation in `Hurricane Louise' at the concentrations applied. Ethephon increased axillary branching in all cultivars, and induced lower leaf abscission in UF 03-17-8 and `Hurricane Louise'; leaf malformation in UF 03-6-1 and `Coco Loco'; and color alteration in UF 03-6-1, UF 03-8-3, and `Coco Loco'.
Lisa Chen Cushman, H. Brent Pemberton, and John W. Kelly
Experiments were conducted to study the interaction of cultivar, flower stage, silver thiosulfate (STS), and BA on flower senescence and leaf abscission in greenhouse-grown potted miniature roses. Plants of Rosa L. `Meijikatar' (Orange Sunblaze) and `Meirutral' (Red Sunblaze) were sprayed with several concentrations of STS and BA in factorial combination. In winter, plants were sprayed with STS at 0 or 2 mm and BA at 0, 0.02,0.04,0.11,0.22, or 0.44 mm In spring, flowers at three stages of development were sprayed with STS at 0,2, or 3 mm, and BA at 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.22, or 0.44 mm One day after treatment in both experiments, plants were placed in darkness at 16C for 4 days to simulate shipping, and then they were evaluated in a controlled environment at 21C. Poststorage floral longevity (PSFL) was longer for `Meirutral' than for `Meijikatar' plants, regardless of chemical treatment or flower stage. Flowers that were in the bud stage (stage 1) before simulated shipping lasted longer than flowers showing color (stages 2 and 3), regardless of cultivar or chemical treatment. Combinations of STS and BA did not increase PSFL compared to STS alone. Plants treated with 2 or 3 mm STS exhibited longer PSFL than nontreated plants; however, 2 and 3 mm were about equally effective. STS at 4 mm was phytotoxic in a preliminary experiment. Applying BA alone did not affect PSFL, but did improve postharvest flower opening on `Meijikatar' plants about the same as STS applied alone. The large flowering cultivars represented by `Meijikatar' and `Meirutral' appear to be nonresponsive to BA. A star-shaped malformation was induced on `Meijikatar' and `Meirutral' plants by simulated shipping and was not prevented by STS or BA. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA).
Russell W. Wallace*
Field research was conducted to evaluate pre-transplant (PRE) applications of sulfentrazone (0.20 or 0.41 kg·ha-1 a.i.) and flufenacet (0.045 kg·ha-1 a.i.), or early postemergence (EPOST) halosulfuron (0.027, 0.036 or 0.054 kg·ha-1 a.i.) on phytotoxicity and yield of field-grown chili (var. Sonora), jalapeño (var. Grande) and bell (var. Giant Belle) peppers (Capiscum annuum) in Texas. Crop injury recorded 15 days after sulfentrazone treatments (DAT) showed minor stunting at the low rate, but moderate stunting and temporary leaf malformation when applied at 0.41 kg·ha-1 a.i. Increased stunting occurred 37 DAT at both rates; however, new leaf growth was not affected. Flufenacet did not result in crop injury to any of the three types grown. Phytotoxicity from halosulfuron recorded 7 DAT gave significantly higher ratings for stunting/chlorosis for broadcast EPOST treatments when compared to EPOST-directed applications. Injury from halosulfuron was temporary and considered minor with all EPOST treatments by 22 DAT. Pepper yield data showed that EPOST halosulfuron treatments were statistically equivalent to the untreated controls for each of the three types, but there was a trend for lower yields with rates higher than 0.027 kg·ha-1 a.i. All peppers treated with flufenacet gave excellent yields. Sulfentrazone applied at the high rate gave the greatest yield losses in all three types, and this was significant in the jalapeños. The results indicate that all three herbicides have potential for use in commercial pepper production in Texas. However, more research is needed to evaluate these and other herbicides for improved crop safety in peppers.
Ben A. Bergmann, John M. Dole, and Ingram McCall
for the next lower concentration ( Table 2 ). Likewise, foxglove was the only cultivar in which flower malformations were common, occurring after all GA 3 treatments and becoming more prevalent as concentration increased. An insufficient number of cut
Mary Joy M. Abit and Bradley D. Hanson
season growth period by crop safety concerns ( Zheljazkov et al., 2007 ). Some herbicides can injure either crop roots (stunting or malformations) or aboveground portions of the plant (meristem damage, stem malformations, stunting, and chlorosis). Plants
Frederic B. Ouedraogo, B. Wade Brorsen, Jon T. Biermacher, and Charles T. Rohla
) to reduction in shoot growth and decline of the trees ( Ortega et al., 2006 ). In some cases, root malformation may lead to the death of the plant. Survival and the resilience of nursery seedlings to transplant stress depends on their ability to
Nicacio Cruz-Huerta, Jeffrey G. Williamson, and Rebecca L. Darnell
60% flattened and deformed fruits and thus are unmarketable ( Ali and Kelly, 1993 ; Aloni et al., 1999 ). Several reports have previously addressed the effect of low night temperature (LNT) on flower and fruit development and malformation in sweet
H.M. Mathers, S.B. Lowe, C. Scagel, D.K. Struve, and L.T. Case
uncompacted (0.39 g·cm −3 ) substrates; however, root malformation was also greatest when grown in compacted substrate. Compaction of 1.01 and 1.10 g·cm −3 resulted in root circling, which may decrease plant performance after transplanting. The influence of