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James P. Mattheis, David R. Rudell, and Ines Hanrahan

sensitive with both peel (soft scald) and cortex (soggy breakdown) tissues at risk of injury development during cold storage ( Watkins et al., 2004 ). Chilling sensitivity is influenced by orchard environment before harvest ( Lachapelle et al., 2013 ; Moran

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Jorge A. Osuna-Garcia, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Donald J. Huber, and Yolanda Nolasco-Gonzalez

when applied at color break stage caused a “rubbery” texture at the ripe stage. In addition, there are references that state gaseous 1-MCP caused skin browning in ‘Golden Delicious’ apples ( Malus × domestica ) and lenticel breakdown in ‘Gala’ apples

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Corina Serban, Lee Kalcsits, Jennifer DeEll, and James P. Mattheis

, leather blotch, lenticel breakdown, senescent browning, core browning, internal browning, cavities, greasiness, soft scald, and soggy breakdown) are reported as incidence. Bitter pit was determined as surface lesions <5 mm in diameter with underlying brown

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Richard L. Bell, Tom van der Zwet, Steve Castagnoli, Todd Einhorn, Janet D. Turner, Robert Spotts, Gary A. Moulton, Greg L. Reighard, and William W. Shane

sparse at AFRS, primarily appearing as prominent lenticel russet, appearing as only small lenticel russet at Mount Vernon, and absent at MCAREC. Lenticels are round, conspicuous but small, dark tan in color, and of moderate density ( Table 1 ). Overall

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Carolina Contreras, Nihad Alsmairat, and Randy Beaudry

, firmness, and SSC. The remainder were covered in LDPE bags as previously described and held for 7 d at 20 °C and afterward assessed for external and internal disorder incidence. External physiological disorders such as soft scald, lenticel breakdown, and

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Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock

to a number of physiological disorders including bitter pit, soft scald, soggy breakdown, low temperature breakdown, and senescent breakdown ( DeEll and Ehsani-Moghaddam, 2010 ; DeLong et al., 2006 ; Moran et al., 2009 ; Rosenberger et al., 2004

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Juan Pablo Zoffoli, Valentina Sanguedolce, Paulina Naranjo, and Carolina Contreras

, are not allowed for organic apples. Additionally, 1-MCP may increase bitter pit and lenticel blotch pit ( Calvo and Cardan, 2010 ; Gago et al., 2015 ). Likewise, the traditional concentrations of O 2 and CO 2 of CA (1.5 kPa O 2 ; 1 kPa CO 2 ) are

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Richard L. Bell and Tom van der Zwet

russeting is intermediate between ‘Bartlett’ and ‘Clapp's Favorite’ with most russeting being in the form of slightly prominent lenticel corking and occasional splotches of smooth tan russet. Overall appearance rated as well as ‘Bartlett’ and ‘Clapp

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Georgios Syrgiannidis, Thomas Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Koutinas, and Dimitrios Almaliotis

gray. Branch lenticels are oval, 0.4 to 0.6 mm in diameter, and gray–white. Vegetative buds are medium in size and oblique. Mixed buds are borne on 1-year-old shoots and spurs generally found on shoots at least 2 years old. Chilling requirement of the

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Luiz C. Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis

McManus, 2005 ). Maximum control of fruit softening, superficial scald, and senescent breakdown for apples is achieved by treatment as soon after harvest as possible ( Argenta et al., 2005 ; Watkins and Nock, 2005 ). The low boiling point (less than 10