This report examines the behavior of elderly adults and preschool children during horticultural therapy (HT) activities to determine if combining intergenerational groups would complement or detract from the HT goals for each group separately. During a 10-week observation period, data were collected on video documenting attendance, participation time and pattern during separate age group and intergenerational activities. These data were used to determine if interactions changed over time or in response to different activities. Participation appeared to be affected by activity design, difficulty level, individual ability, and availability of assistance from volunteers. Children's participation during separate age group activities appeared to be affected mainly by the difficulty level and activity design. Elderly adults' participation during separate age group activities appeared to be affected by individual ability limitation and availability of assistance. Children's intergenerational participation scores appeared to show an increase in the category of “working with direct assistance”, while elderly adults' intergenerational scores appeared to show an increase in the categories of “no participation” and “independent participation”. In part, the change in intergenerational participation appeared to be due to a decrease in assistance available from volunteers for each individual. For some individuals, the introduction of intergenerational groups appeared to detract from personal participation in horticulture activities. If the goal of the HT is directly related to the individual's activity in horticulture (i.e., increased self-esteem from successfully designing and building a terrarium), the intergenerational element appears to reduce the potential for that benefit. The percentage of total social interaction time between the generations during activities increased over time. The intergenerational activities involving plant-based activities seemed to be more successful at increasing intergenerational exchange than the craft-type activities. Therefore, horticulture may be a useful activity for programs with a goal of increased intergenerational interaction.
Mary L. Predny and Diane Relf
D.J. Tennessen and V.A. Lalli
The population of senior citizens in our society (65 and older) are growing at a faster rate than any other segment of the population. Loss of decisionmaking capabilities coupled with controlled retirement home environments can lead to stress and depression in our elderly. At the same time, our nations youth no longer enjoy a family nucleus that includes elders who help guide youth away from risky activities. The publication “HILT: Horticulture Intergenerational Learning as Therapy” (Cornell Media Services, Ithaca, N.Y., in press) was used as a guidebook for combining senior citizens and gradeschoolers at three local settings in 1995 and 1996. The project encourages elders to take charge and mentor youth while leading youth in an indoor and outdoor gardening program. The pilot projects included a public gradeschool site, a mental day-care facility, and a local retirement home. Youth benefited by learning about their elders and about horticulture. The subject of horticulture provides a comfortable and valuable learning environment as well as a focal point for the participants. The project provides three evaluation methods that include survey, interview, and leader observation tools. In our study, senior participation increased by 75% during two 8-week projects and 40% during a 7-month project. Surveys reveal that senior citizens were nervous and concerned about behavior of young people before the project, yet renewed and excited about future projects after participation. Youth enjoyed hearing stories, learning about planting, and getting dirty. Use of self concept and morale scales will be presented. A copy of the project publication as well as ideas about using the publication will be provided in the discussion.
Harlan Shoulders and Angela Wray
Jon H. Traunfeld and D.M. Kafami
83 ORAL SESSION 16 (Abstr. 495–501) Human Issues: Horticultural Therapy
Richard H. Mattson*, Eunhee Kim, Gary E. Marlowe, and Jimmy D. Nicholson
At the Lamar County Adult Probation Program in Paris, Texas, a three-year study (Spring 2001-Fall 2003) involving 376 probationers was conducted to investigate the rehabilitative effects on probationers of a horticulture vocational training program. Data were collected on 189 adults who were randomly assigned to a horticulture group doing greenhouse plant production and vegetable gardening activities. The horticulture group was compared with 187 adults who were in a non-horticulture community service group doing trash clean-up and janitorial work. Within the horticulture group, significant improvement occurred in horticultural knowledge (KSU General and Specific Horticulture Exams), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and environmental awareness (Environmental Response Inventory). These changes did not occur within the non-horticulture community service group. Future research will examine recidivism rates and vocational placements of probationers from both groups.
Sin-Ae Park, Sae-Room Oh, Kwan-Suk Lee, and Ki-Cheol Son
that a horticultural activity can specifically improve a certain muscle part of human body is fundamental and useful information and can be applied to developing horticultural therapy program. Consistently low EMG values in most of the horticultural
Sheri Dorn, Lucy Bradley, Debbie Hamrick, Julie Weisenhorn, Pam Bennett, Jill Callabro, Bridget Behe, Ellen Bauske, and Natalie Bumgarner
were published collaboratively by researchers in two or more countries. Research in the United States tended to focus on restorative benefits of CH, whereas research outside of the United States tended to focus on horticultural therapy. Determining
A-Young Lee, Sin-Ae Park, Young-Jin Moon, and Ki-Cheol Son
operating procedure for the HAs was developed previously by six experts in the field of horticultural therapy, horticultural science, and motion dynamics ( Park et al., 2014 ) ( Table 2 ). Table 2. Descriptions of horticultural activities performed by the