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Maria E. Monzon, Bill Biasi, Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Shaojin Wang, Juming Tang, and Guy J. Hallman

resulting from RF treatments indicate fruit stress and correlates with the internal damage observed for the same treatments. Heat stress has also been observed in vapor-heated mangoes in which it was attributed to higher respiration rates after treatment

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Dilip R. Panthee, Jonathan P. Kressin, and Ann Piotrowski

resistance, and enhanced disorganization of cellular organs ( Chen et al., 1982 ). The most damaging impact is on fruit yield. The yield reduction is related primarily to reduced fruit set, which may not occur for many reasons, including adverse effects on

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Jan van Niekerk, Charl Kotze, Jade North, and Paul Cronje

, winter rainfall, production areas of South Africa that they are experiencing phytotoxic damage to mandarin fruit when they applied phosphonates at late fruit developmental stages, when color development is advanced. As this was the first of the reports of

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Sorkel Kadir, Michael Von Weihe, and Kassim Al-Khatib

investigated at a whole plant and on a cellular level ( Kadir, 2006 ). Damage to PSII in grapes was closely related to decline in photosynthesis. Varietal response to heat stress of extracted thylakoids indicated the existence of thermostability differences

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Long He, Jianfeng Zhou, Qin Zhang, and Manoj Karkee

increased chances of being subjected to both fruit-to-fruit and fruit-to-branch impacts. Fruit damage source. Fruit damage due to mechanical harvesting is related to many factors, including fruit maturity. The fruit damage rate in different fruit maturity

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Cristina Besada, Alejandra Salvador, Lucía Arnal, and Jose María Martínez-Jávega

related to heat damage. It could be explained by the fact that these treatments produced a compacted area of flesh around the cracking because of flesh dehydration. As happened in the H1 experiment, fruit treated at 55 °C showed external browning around

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Hemant L. Gohil and Michelle M. Moyer

duration of heat exposure. Caution should be taken with adjustments so that they do not result in direct and extended high temperature exposure that could potentially damage leaves or fruit. Vine development and phenology. Bloom (BBCH 65), defined as 50

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Harwinder Singh Sidhu, Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez, and Daniel MacLean

shriveling, and are influenced by the presence of fruit physiologic disorders (e.g., sunscald), fruit diseases, and fruit mechanical damage. Fruit physical attributes may be affected by tree maturity, environmental conditions during fruit development, fruit

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Hua Shen, Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang, and Bingru Huang

notably, how nutrient accumulation is associated with differences in heat tolerance and specifically heat-induced damage in leaves between warm-season and cool-season grass species is not well documented. In addition, different nutrient elements may differ

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Chunxian Chen, William R. Okie, and Thomas G. Beckman

completely frozen and dropped fruitlets were the primary cause for the reduction, buttons and skin-damaged fruit with normal sizes were the two other main contributing forms. Levels of spring frost tolerance among peach genotypes ultimately are related to