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Matthew W. Fidelibus, L. Peter Christensen, Donald G. Katayama, and David W. Ramming

available and more costly, therefore complete mechanization of the raisin-making process is now an important industry goal ( Christensen, 2000b ). One promising mechanized production concept is dry-on-vine (DOV). The DOV method consists of severing grapevine

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Thomas M. Todaro and Imed E. Dami

of soil hilling (covering the graft union and trunk base with soil) is a worst case scenario measure when grapevine dieback occurs and intends to protect buds at the base of the scion for trunk renewal during the following season ( Howell, 1988

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Charalambos I. Siminis and Manolis N. Stavrakakis

among the cultivated plant species and particularly in grapevine, which is induced in calcareous and alkaline soils and is known as Fe chlorosis ( Mengel, 1995 ). Impaired Fe nutrition causes severe symptoms in grapevine such as chlorotic leaves and

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Atsushi Kono, Akihiko Sato, Bruce Reisch, and Lance Cadle-Davidson

Grapevine downy mildew occurs throughout the world, and is one of the most destructive diseases in viticultural areas with high annual rainfall. DM attacks all green parts of the vine, such as leaves, tendrils, shoots, inflorescences, and bunches

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Vania Lanari, Oriana Silvestroni, Alberto Palliotti, Alan Green, and Paolo Sabbatini

Massacci, 1996 ) and that it contributes to a temporary reduction of leaf carbon fixation ( Liu et al., 1978 ; Naor et al., 1994 ; Schultz, 2003 ). However, it has been reported for grapevines in the field that irreversible effects on photoinhibition

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Fucheng Shan and Kevin Seaton

is based on imported cultivars such as in New Zealand, South Africa, Chile, India, China, and Australia with strict quarantine regulations governing the importation of grapevines. The Australian wine and grape industry has developed and greatly

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Omar Franco-Mora, Edgar Jesús Morales-Rosales, Andrés González-Huerta, and Juan Guillermo Cruz-Castillo

In several regions of Mexico, the presence of wild grapevines has been reported ( Franco-Mora et al., 2007 , 2008 ; Martínez et al., 2007 ). However, as observed in other countries such as France, Spain, and Japan, the number of wild genotypes

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Matthew W. Fidelibus

History The California raisin industry was established in 1873, following the development of adequate irrigation and transportation systems, and the introduction and distribution of appropriate grapevine cultivars ( Christensen, 2000a ; Meyer, 1931

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Michela Centinari, Maria S. Smith, and Jason P. Londo

al., 1987 ), young citrus ( Burns, 1973 ), and tomato and pepper ( Perry et al., 1992 ). On the contrary, the application of a hydrophobic particle film (CM-96-018) led to a decrease in freeze injury in potatoes, grapevine, and citrus plants ( Fuller

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Jitao Li, Nian Wang, Lina Wang, Haiping Xin, and Shaohua Li

response to various abiotic stresses. Grapevine is the most widely planted fruit crop worldwide and is cultivated in all continents except Antarctica ( Mullins et al., 1992 ). However, cold stress limits the geographical distribution and productivity of