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Luis A. Rivera-Burgos, Emily Silverman, Nebahat Sari, and Todd C. Wehner

for resistance to GSB ( Gusmini et al., 2005 ). The scale has been used in genetic analyses of large numbers of plants tested in multiple environments ( Gusmini et al., 2017 ). Another method of measuring disease severity involves the area under the

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Lina M. Rodríguez-Salamanca and Mary K. Hausbeck

this inoculum concentration could result in ≈40% disease severity under controlled and optimized environmental conditions ( Rodríguez-Salamanca et al., 2018 ). Inoculum was applied twice during the growing season on 21 July and 25 Aug. 2011, and 12 July

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Mary Ruth McDonald and Sean M. Westerveld

. Disease severity was assessed using a scale from 0 to 3: 0 = no clubbing, 1 = less than 25% of root system clubbed, 2 = 25% to 50% of root system clubbed and 3 = greater than 50% of root system clubbed ( Humpherson-Jones et al., 1992 ). Disease severity

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Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas and Fikrettin Sahin

strains causing ≈80% to 90% disease severity on the basis of the virulence test reported by Norelli et al. (1984) . The virulence was tested on cv. Williams pear seedlings. They were verified as E. amylovora by streaking on Crosse and Goodman (CG) media

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Neel Kamal and Christopher S. Cramer

entries in the study. Singh (2013) reported that entries NMSU 10-575-1, 10-577-1, and 10-582-1 showed less disease severity than their original populations from which these entries were selected. PI accessions 239633 and 546192 showed fewer IYS symptoms

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Huangjun Lu and Richard Raid

for response to BLS. In the field, plants were maintained according to standard commercial practices, sprayed with bacterial inoculum at thinning and again 2 weeks later, and rated for disease incidence and severity before harvest ( Bull et al., 2007

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Sean M. Westerveld, Alan W. McKeown, and Mary Ruth McDonald

severity of the disease was reduced by increasing nitrogen (N) fertilizer application rate in Michigan ( Warncke, 1996 ) and Ontario ( Westerveld et al., 2002 ). However, the response of CLS to N fertilization is not as well defined as for ALB. Cercospora

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Fulya Baysal-Gurel, Ravi Bika, Christina Jennings, Cristi Palmer, and Terri Simmons

experiment was conducted from 19 July 2017 to 23 Aug. 2017. The plants were evaluated for algal leaf spot disease severity, phytotoxicity, and defoliation on 18 and 26 July, and 2, 9, 16, and 23 Aug. 2017, and plant height and width were measured on 19 July

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Bruce W. Wood, Charles C. Reilly, Clive H. Bock, and Michael W. Hotchkiss

disease severity, ensuring optimal nutritional physiology of cells, tissues, and organs may reduce scab incidence and severity. Nickel is an essential nutrient element often disregarded by nutrient management programs, although it is integral to certain

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Douglas S. Higgins and Mary K. Hausbeck

because it tested positive for Hop latent virus , Apple mosaic virus , and American hop latent virus . Foliar disease ratings. In each plot, the inner 6 of the 10 plants per replication were assessed for foliar disease severity and density (2016