The regulation of anther dehiscence by relative humidity (RH) was assessed for detached anthers and detached whole flowers from a limited selection of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch], and almond [P. dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb, syn. P. amygdalus Batsch; P. communis (L.) Arcangeli, non Huds.] genotypes, as well as an almond X peach F2 progeny. Dehiscence was evaluated at 33, 64, 87, 93 and 97% RH for detached anthers, and at 33, 64 and 97% RH for whole detached flowers. Anther dehiscence was suppressed with increasing RH for all genotypes. Apricot anthers showed the greatest dehiscence at low RH and measurable dehiscence at high RH even when detached. Anther dehiscence in almond appeared more suppressed than in apricot at all RH levels tested, being completely suppressed by high RH in detached anthers. Peach genotypes exhibited the full range of variability between apricot and almond patterns. Evidence for transgressive segregation of RH-controlled anther dehiscence was observed in the occurrence of cleistogamy in an almond × peach F2 progeny. Rates of anther dehiscence were approximately linear with change in RH in detached anthers but exhibited a more buffered, step-wise response when detached whole flowers were tested. Results are consistent with field observations, and highlight the low but measurable risk of cleistogamy in these species, as well as opportunities to modify the breeding systems and crossing environments to facilitate controlled hybridization, and to reduce pollination vulnerability to adverse environments.
Thomas M. Gradziel and Steven A. Weinbaum
J. Egea and L. Burgos
Laboratory and orchard tests have shown that the apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars `Hargrand', `Goldrich', and `Lambertin-1' are cross-incompatible. All three cultivars are from North American breeding programs and have `Perfection' as a common ancestor. In orchard tests, compatible pollinations resulted in 19% to 74% fruit set, while incompatible pollinations resulted in <2% fruit set. Microscopic examination showed that, in incompatible pollinations, pollen tube growth was arrested in the style, most frequently in its third quarter, and that the ovary was never reached. It is proposed that self-incompatibility in apricot is of the gametophytic type, controlled by one S-locus with multiple alleles, and that these three cultivars are S1S2.
Marĺa L. Badenes, Jose Martĺnez-Calvo, and Gerardo Llácer
We thank Rafael Ros, Tarek A. Moustafá, and Dolores M. Archelós for assistance in data collection during the evaluation of these cultivars and J.R. Clark for revision and improvement of the MS. The apricot breeding project was funded by
J. Egea, D. Ruiz, and L. Burgos
Technology from 1985, the last one being titled Mejora Genética del Albaricoquero (AGL2001-112-C02-01). The authors dedicate this paper to Luis Egea, who dedicated a great part of his life to the apricot breeding program of the CEBAS–CSIC.
J. Egea, P. Martínez-Gómez, F. Dicenta, and L. Burgos
Technology from 1985, the last one being titled “Mejora Genética del Albaricoquero” (AGL2001-112-C02-01). The authors dedicate this paper to Dr. Luis Egea, who dedicated a great part of his life to the apricot breeding program of the CEBAS-CSIC.
J. Egea, D. Ruiz, F. Dicenta, and L. Burgos
Technology from 1985, the last one being titled Mejora Genética del Albaricoquero (AGL2001-112-C02-01). The authors dedicate this paper to Luis Egea, who dedicated a great part of his life to the apricot breeding program of the CEBAS-CSIC.
Santiago Vilanova, Carlos Romero, Gerardo Llácer, María Luisa Badenes, and Lorenzo Burgos
This report shows the PCR-based identification of the eight known self-(in)compatibility alleles (S 1 to S 7 and S c) of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Two sets of consensus primers, designed from P. armeniaca S-RNase genomic sequences and sweet cherry (P. avium L.) S-RNase-cDNAs, were used to amplify fragments containing the first and the second S-RNase intron, respectively. When the results obtained from the two PCRs were combined, all S-alleles could be distinguished. The identity of the amplified S-alleles was verified by sequencing the first intron and 135 base pairs (bp) of the second exon. The deduced amino acid sequences of these fragments showed the presence of the C1 and C2 Prunus L. S-RNase conserved regions. These results allowed us to confirm S-genotypes previously assigned by stylar ribonuclease analyses and to propose one self-(in)compatibility group (I) and one universal donor group (O) containing unique S-genotypes and self-compatible cultivars (SC). This PCR-based typing system also facilitates the identification of the S c-allele and might be a very useful tool for predicting self-compatibility in apricot breeding progenies.
Bayram Murat Asma, Zehra Tuğba Murathan, Tuncay Kan, Fırat Ege Karaat, Ogün Birhanlı, and Abdullah Erdoğan
‘Eylul’ is the most recent apricot ( Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar bred in the Multi-Purpose Apricot Breeding Program of Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey, and released for propagation in 2017. ‘Eylul’ means September in Turkish which addresses its
Zhenyu Huang, Lehan Xia, Yibin Feng, Jingtao Hui, Shurui Qiao, and Yuling Chen
, L. 2003 The latest progress of apricot in the world. Northern Fruits 2:1–2 Zhao, F. Liu, W.S. Liu, N. Yu, X.H. Sun, M. Zhang, Y.P. Zhou, Y.Q. 2005 Reviews of the apricot germplasm resources and genetic breeding in China J. Fruit Sci. 22 6 687 690
Bayram Murat Asma
‘Dilbay’ is an early-maturing table apricot ( Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar developed from the Multi-Purpose Apricot Breeding Program at the Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey. ‘Dilbay’ is suitable for fresh consumption because it has perfect fruit