The influence of a wide range of CO2 levels on the growth, morphogenesis, and secondary metabolite production in vitro was evaluated. Shoots of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and a spearmint–peppermint cross (Mentha spicata × Mentha piperita) were grown on MS medium with and without 3% sucrose under 350, 1500, 3000, 10,000, and 30,000 μL CO2/L for 8 weeks. Dichloromethane extracts from leafs were analyzed using GC-MS techniques. Prominent peaks were identified by comparison with known standards. Highest growth (i.e., fresh weight) and morphogenesis responses (i.e., leafs, shoots and roots) were obtained when shoots were grown under 10,000 μL CO2/L regardless of whether or not sucrose was included in the medium. Ultra-high CO2 concentrations (3000 μL CO2/L) stimulated secondary metabolite production regardless of whether or not the medium contained sucrose. However, the combination of certain ultra-high CO2 levels (e.g., 3000 to 10,000 μL CO2/L) and the presence of sucrose in the medium resulted in shoots producing the highest levels of secondary metabolites. These results suggest that in vitro photosynthesis, which is stimulated by ultrahigh CO2 levels, may enhance secondary metabolite production.
Brent Tisserat and Steven Vaughn
A. A. Csizinszky
Italian parsley (parsley) Petroselinum crispum, summer savory (savory) Satureja hortensis, sweet marjoram (marjoram) Origanum majoranna, and thyme Thymus vulgaris, were evaluated for their yield potential in multiple harvest during the fall–winter–spring (Dec.–May 1997–98). The herbs were grown with the full-bed polyethylene mulch-micro (trickle) irrigation system. Experimental design was a split-plot arranged in three randomized complete blocks. Main plots were two N–P–K treatments: 0 N–P–K or N and K from a liquid 4N–0P–3.32K fertilizer injected at 0.77 N and 0.64 K kg/ha per day. In the subplots, compost was applied in a 4 to 8 inches wide band on the pre-bed at 0x, 1x, 2x, and 4x rates (1x = 4.5 t·ha–1). Parsley and marjoram yields in the first three harvests and thyme yields in the first two harvests were similar with 0x compost and N + K injected fertilizers to yields with 3x and 4x compost rates with no injected N + K fertilizers. For the season, yields were higher with injected N + K fertilizers with or without compost, than in the compost treated plots with no N + K fertilizers.
Elizabeth Herrera, Nicolas Tremblay, and André Gosselin
Transplants of angelica (Angelica archangelica L.), horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were grown in multicompartment trays with five proportions of compost (0%, 15%, 30%, 45%, 60%) mixed to peatmoss and perlite. Plants were fertilized with different electrical conductivity (EC) levels of the nutrient solution (0, 1, and 2 mmho/cm). Horehound and thyme plants were transplanted in the field to measure the residual effects of treatments on dry matter yields and level of active substances. The three medicinal plants showed increased shoot and root dry weights as well as leaf mineral content (some nutrients) when proportion of compost and EC of nutrient solution were higher. The optimal combinations of compost and fertilization treatments on plants growth varied between species. Residual effects of treatments applied in greenhouse on shoot dry matter weight of horehound and thyme plants were observed until the 9th and 12th week, respectively, after transplantation. Treatments also affected active substance levels in horehound plants in field. Organic fertilization management influenced growth, yield in the field and level of certain active substances of the harvested parts of medicinal plants.
Carolina Aparicio, Miguel Urrestarazu, and María del Pilar Cordovilla
salinity and the interaction between Thymus vulgaris and Lavandula angustifolia on growth, ethylene production and essential oil contents J. Plant Nutr. 37 875 888 Demiral, M.A. 2005 Comparative response of two olive ( Olea europaea L.) cultivars to
Chen Jiang, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Guoying Ma, and Christopher Gunter
, from Thymus vulgaris , Thymus zygis , or both, W306509), cinnamon leaf oil (CN, Ceylon type, Cinnamomum zeylanicum , W229202), and CBO ( Eugenia spp., W232300). The three EOs were chosen based on their high antimicrobial efficacy on the most common
Sara Atrash, Asghar Ramezanian, Majid Rahemi, Reza Mostofizadeh Ghalamfarsa, and Elhadi Yahia
lime ( Citrus latifolia Tan.) fruit Postharvest Biol. Technol. 61 2 124 130 Karami-Osboo, R. Khodaverdi, M. Ali-Akbari, F. 2010 Antibacterial effect of effective compounds of Satureja hortensis and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Erwinia
Bahlebi K. Eiasu, Puffy Soundy, and J. Martin Steyn
enhanced essential oil yield of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.). The authors found positive correlations among photosynthesis, herbage yield, and essential oil yield in thyme plants. Putievesky et al. (1990) also reported that as irrigation intervals became
Paige L. Herring, Abbey C. Noah, and Helen T. Kraus
( Mentha × piperita ), and thyme ( Thymus vulgaris ), among others ( Bustamante et al., 2008 ; DeKalb et al., 2014 ; Herrera et al., 1997 ; O’Brien and Barker, 1996 ; Zheljazkov and Warman, 2004 ). O’Brien and Barker (1996) reported that shoot dry
Weiguang Yi and Hazel Y. Wetzstein
), and thyme ( Thymus vulgaris ) ( Dragland et al., 2003 ; Yi and Wetzstein, 2010 ). Systematic evaluations of drying and extraction conditions on biochemical activities of this group are lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects
Qingling Li, Yuesheng Yang, and Hong Wu
, has been widely used in many plant species, such as Acacia mearnsii ( Beck et al., 2003 ), Aegilops neglecta ( Aryavand et al., 2003 ), Alocasia ( Thao et al., 2003 ), Beta vulgaris ( Yudanova et al., 2002 ), E. purpurea ( Abdoli et al., 2013