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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Glykeria Gogoula

% Cynodon dactylon , 50% Festuca arundinacea , and 15% Poa pratensis ). The composted olive stone-amended substrate improved turf visual quality, color, shoot density, uniformity, and coverage. Alburquerque et al. (2007) in a controlled pot study

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Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Catherine M. Grieve, Abdul Razak-Mahar, Milton E. McGiffen, and Donald J. Merhaut

). Excessive Na + and Cl – concentration in plant tissues may reduce visual quality of ornamental plants by inducing leaf necrosis or bronzing. However, in ornamental horticulture, short-stature plants are not necessarily associated with poor quality as

Open access

Youping Sun, Liqin Li, Yuxiang Wang, and Xin Dai

(Bayer Advanced, Research Triangle Park, NC) at 0.6 mL/gallon was sprayed on all plants to control powdery mildew as needed. Plant growth and visual quality. On 25 June 2018, plant shoots were harvested and the leaf areas (square centimeter) of each of

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Sheng Wang, Qi Zhang, and Eric Watkins

( Horst and Beadle, 1984 ). Visual quality was evaluated with a 1 to 9 scale, in which 1 = dead grass, 5 = acceptable, and 9 = best quality based on color, texture, and uniformity ( Emmons, 2000 ). The experiment was conducted from 10 Mar. to 14 Apr

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William Pelletier, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Maria Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, and Jean-Pierre Émond

shelf life at near 0 °C ( Mitchell et al., 1996 ). Effects of such delays not only negatively affect the visual quality characteristics of the fruit but also its chemical composition and nutritional value ( Nunes et al., 1995b ). Once precooled, the

Open access

Haifeng Xing, Julie Hershkowitz, Asmita Paudel, Youping Sun, Ji Jhong Chen, Xin Dai, and Matthew Chappell

. The salt content of reclaimed water is typically 2 to 3 times higher than in potable water ( Khurram and Miyamoto, 2005 ; Wu et al., 2001 ). Salts accumulated in the soil affect the productivity (biomass production) and visual quality of salt

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S.W. Han, J.A Juvik, L.A. Spomer, and T.W. Fermanian

Plant growth regulators are becoming important tools for managing high-quality turf. However, long-term suppression of growth might affect the potential of the turf to recuperate from summer stresses. This study was initiated to determine the impact of popular commercial turfgrass growth regulators (TGR) on the accumulation of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), and their effect on turf quality. Three experiments, one each year from 1994 through 1996, were conducted on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera Huds. `Penncross') in a greenhouse. Growth retardants evaluated included trinexapac-ethyl at 0.28 kg·ha-1, flurprimidol at 0.56 kg·ha-1, and paclobutrazol at 0.28 kg·ha-1. Each retardant was applied at three different intervals: a single initial application or multiple applications every 2 or 4 weeks, for the first 8 weeks of each experiment. The verdure and roots were harvested and analyzed for TNC. Trinexapac-ethyl, flurprimidol, and paclobutrazol significantly increased the TNC of creeping bentgrass 2 weeks after their initial application, but TNC levels began to decrease at week 4. The TNC content was strongly influenced by TGR application rate but not application intervals. A single trinexapac-ethyl application at 0.28 kg·ha-1 reduced TNC content more than did split applications, each at lower rates. Accordingly, TNC levels recovered more rapidly with lower, more frequent application rates; however, the retardation effect on vegetative growth diminished as the concentration was lowered. On the other hand, repeated low application rates of trinexapac-ethyl may have minimal effect on TNC accumulation. Chemical names used: [4(cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); {α-[1-methylethyl]-α-[4-(trifluoro-methoxy)phenyl]-5-pyrimidine-m ethanol}(flurprimidol);[(2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-1,2,4,-t riazole-1-yl)penta-n-3--ol] (paclobutrazol).

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S.R. Mueller and W.R. Kussow

Immature sand matrix golf putting greens are considered to be inhospitable environments for microorganisms as compared to native soils. Subsequently, turfgrass quality may suffer in the absence of beneficial microbe–plant interactions. The turfgrass industry has responded by marketing a wide array of biostimulant products that claim to improve putting green quality through influences on soil microbial activity. A field study was conducted to determine what influences five commercial biostimulants have on the root-zone microbial community and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) quality. A three year old U.S. Golf Association (USGA) specification sand-based putting green (e.g., 80% sand: 20% peat humus by volume) was the test site. Commercially available biostimulants and fertilizer were applied biweekly from May until August 2000. The soil microbial community was characterized using soil enzymes and substrate utilization profiles. Turfgrass quality was determined visually by evaluating color, percentage of localized dry spot (LDS), and overall uniformity. Nutrient uptake levels were monitored to ascertain if increases in quality related to plant health. Visual quality of the putting green was significantly improved (p < 0.05) by the commercial biostimulants. The positive response to biostimulants was not of a nutritional origin. The biostimulants did not effectively alter the putting green microbial community in terms of enzyme activity or substrate utilization. However, a seasonal decline was detected in cellulase activity, which prevailed over any treatment effect, suggesting the root-zone microbial community responded to summer decline of bentgrass roots and concomitant decreases in quantities of root exudates. Visual improvements in putting green quality during the period of summer stress were primarily associated with the incidence of LDS. Visual LDS ratings were significantly reduced (less LDS) by applications of the biostimulants on each observation date (p < 0.05) and over the entire course of the experiment (p < 0.10). Surfactant properties of the biostimulants therefore appeared to play a major role in the improvements in putting green quality. This does not negate the fact that the seaweed extracts and humic acids in the biostimulants may have improved the heat and moisture stress tolerance of the bentgrass once the LDS formed.

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Xiaoya Cai, Youping Sun, Terri Starman, Charles Hall, and Genhua Niu

and higher visual quality at elevated salinities. Garden roses ( Rosa hybrida L.) are some of the most economically important flowering shrubs in the world. Generally, roses are salt-sensitive species with reduction in yield and quality at salinity

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Julio Loaiza and Marita Cantwell

Respiration rates of freshly harvested cilantro were moderately high (CO2 at 15 to 20 μL·g-1·h-1) and ethylene production rates were low (<0.2 nL·g-1·h-1) at 5 °C and were typical of green leafy tissues. Cilantro stored in darkness at a range of temperatures in air or controlled atmospheres was evaluated periodically for visual quality, decay, aroma, off-odor, color, and chlorophyll content. Cilantro stored in air at 0 °C had good visual quality for 18 to 22 days, while at 5 and 7.5 °C good quality was maintained for about 14 and 7 days, respectively. An atmosphere of air plus 5% or 9% CO2 extended the shelf-life of cilantro stored at 7.5 °C to about 14 days. Quality of cilantro stored in 3% O2plus CO2 was similar to that stored in air plus CO2. Atmospheres enriched with 9% to 10% CO2 caused dark lesions after 18 days; 20% CO2 caused severe injury after 7 days. Although visual quality could be maintained for up to 22 days, typical cilantro aroma decreased notably after 14 days, regardless of storage conditions.