). In ‘Honeycrisp’ grown in Nova Scotia, apples have reduced the risk of bitter pit and soft scald when I AD is in the range of 0.36 to 0.59 ( DeLong et al., 2014 ). However, these studies were based on harvest means of I AD , and they do not consider
Renae Moran, Jennifer DeEll, and Cindy B.S. Tong
Christopher B. Watkins, Mustafa Erkan, Jacqueline F. Nock, Kevin A. Iungerman, Randolph M. Beaudry, and Renae E. Moran
`Honeycrisp' is a new apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] cultivar that has been planted extensively in North America, but the storage disorders soggy breakdown and soft scald have resulted in major fruit losses. The effects of harvest date and storage temperature on fruit quality and susceptibility of fruit to these disorders have been investigated in Michigan, New York, and Maine. Internal ethylene concentrations were variable over a wide range of harvest dates, and a rapid increase in autocatalytic ethylene production was not always apparent. The starch pattern index, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness also appear to have limited use as harvest indices. Development of soggy breakdown and soft scald is associated with later harvest dates and storage of fruit at temperatures of 0 to 0.5 °C compared with higher storage temperatures. It is recommended that `Honeycrisp' be stored at 3 °C, although storage disorders still can occur at this temperature if fruit are harvested late. In addition, greasiness development may be worse at higher storage temperatures.
James Mattheis and David R. Rudell
soluble solids content, include development of peel greasiness, peel yellowing, and senescent disorders ( Watkins et al., 2004 , 2005 ). ‘Honeycrisp’ is susceptible to the chilling disorders soft scald and soggy breakdown ( Tong et al., 2003 ), but the
James P. Mattheis, David R. Rudell, and Ines Hanrahan
sensitive with both peel (soft scald) and cortex (soggy breakdown) tissues at risk of injury development during cold storage ( Watkins et al., 2004 ). Chilling sensitivity is influenced by orchard environment before harvest ( Lachapelle et al., 2013 ; Moran
F. Ghahramani, K.J. Scott, and R. Holmes
`Delicious' (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) apples were kept in sealed polyethylene bags (thickness 0.05 mm) and exposed to ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and pentan-1-ol during storage at 0 °C. Rates of application varied from 1.85 to 120 mmol·kg-1. Complete control of superficial scald was achieved using 30 mmol·kg-1 of fruit with butan-1-ol or propan-1-ol; ethanol required 120 mmol·kg-1 to control the disorder, but at this concentration, purpling of the red skin occurred. Butan-1-ol and propan-1-ol did not affect the color. Pentan-1-ol caused severe skin injury resembling soft or deep scald of `Jonathan' apples. Apples were also kept in high purity N at 20 °C for up to 8 days before storage at 0 °C. Complete control of scald occurred with a 6- or 8-day exposure to N. Control of scald appears to be due to the accumulation of ethanol during exposure to N. Nitrogen treatments did not affect skin color.
James M. Wargo and Chris B. Watkins
`Honeycrisp' apples (Malus × domestica) were harvested over 3-week periods in 2001 and 2002. Maturity and quality indices were determined at harvest. Fruit quality was evaluated after air storage [0.0 to 2.2 °C (32 to 36 °F), 95% relative humidity] for 10-13 weeks and 15-18 weeks for the 2001 and 2002 harvests, respectively. Internal ethylene concentrations (IEC), starch indices (1-8 scale), firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) did not show consistent patterns of change over time. Starch hydrolysis was advanced on all harvest dates, but it is suggested that a starch index of 7 is a useful guide for timing harvest of fruit in western New York. After storage, firmness closely followed that observed immediately after harvest, and softening during storage was slow. No change in SSC was observed during storage in either year. Incidence of bitter pit and soft scald was generally low and was not affected consistently by harvest date. The incidence of stem punctures averaged 18.5% over both years, but was not affected by harvest date. Development of stem end cracking in both years, and rot development in one year, increased with later harvest dates. A panel of storage operators, packers, growers, and fruit extension specialists evaluated the samples for appearance and eating quality after storage, and results suggested that a 2-week harvest window is optimal for `Honeycrisp' apples that are spot picked to select the most mature fruit at each harvest.
Carolina Contreras, Nihad Alsmairat, and Randy Beaudry
). The low-temperature disorders [i.e., chilling injuries (CIs)] described for ‘Honeycrisp’ have been diagnosed as soggy breakdown and soft scald (also known as ribbon scald or deep scald) as described by Plagge (1925 , 1929 ) and Ramsey et al. (1917
Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock
to a number of physiological disorders including bitter pit, soft scald, soggy breakdown, low temperature breakdown, and senescent breakdown ( DeEll and Ehsani-Moghaddam, 2010 ; DeLong et al., 2006 ; Moran et al., 2009 ; Rosenberger et al., 2004
Cindy B.S. Tong, Hsueh-Yuan Chang, James J. Luby, David Bedford, Benham E.L. Lockhart, Roy G. Kiambi, and Dimitre Mollov
storage ( Smock, 1977 ). Common examples of these disorders include superficial scald, soft scald, bitter pit, soggy breakdown, water core, and various types of flesh browning. Prestorage treatment, such as diphenylamine (DPA) dips, 1-methylcyclopropene (1
Cindy B.S. Tong, Hsueh-Yuan Chang, Jennifer K. Boldt, Yizhou B. Ma, Jennifer R. DeEll, Renae E. Moran, Gaétan Bourgeois, and Dominique Plouffe
variation in diurnal temperatures in the 60 d before harvest is associated with increased risk of development of both radial and diffuse browning in ‘Cripps’ Pink’ in Australia ( James et al., 2010 ). Previous research on soft scald of ‘Honeycrisp’ indicates