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Chris A. Martin, Sean A. Whitcomb, and Jean C. Stutz

understood, although limited studies of woody plants in agroforesty systems suggest that pruning generally has a negative impact on root length density and/or fine root growth ( Bayala et al., 2004 ; Peter and Lehmann, 2000 ; Wildy and Pate, 2002 ). Many

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Zhihui Chang, Laiqiang Zhuo, Fangfang Yu, and Xunzhong Zhang

moderate drought resistance. The objective of this study was to examine if application of biosolids can improve plant drought tolerance by affecting N and hormone metabolism as well as root growth in KBG. Materials and Methods Biosolids characterization

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Yong Yang, Xueyong Liu, Yuanli Jiang, Zuoxiang Xiang, Qingguo Xu, Na Zhao, and Bichao Shu

soil layer had lower salt level while the deeper soil layer had a higher salt concentration ( Table 3 ). Root growth was inhibited by high salt concentrations, which resulted in the accumulation of metabolites. On one hand, soluble sugars might have

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Desmond G. Mortley, Conrad K. Bonsi, Walter A. Hill, Carlton E. Morris, Carol S. Williams, Ceyla F. Davis, John W. Williams, Lanfang H. Levine, Barbara V. Petersen, and Raymond M. Wheeler

root length:shoot length and root length:total length were greater compared with ground controls. Plant regeneration from seeds during space flight studies has shown a decrease in the level of amyloplasts and a disorientation of root growth resulting

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Hye-Ji Kim and Xinxin Li

recommendations. Due to a general perception that P stimulates root growth and helps the transplants to obtain a quick establishment, the application of fertilizers with low N:P ratios is still common ( Broschat and Klock-Moore, 2000 ; Hansen and Lynch, 1998

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Lesley A. Judd, Brian E. Jackson, and William C. Fonteno

), percentage of fine particles, and bulk density (BD; Baligar and Nash, 1978 ; Mathers et al., 2007 ). These physical properties are not only important to root growth, but also to cultural practices like decisions on container type/size and irrigation

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Graham H. Barry, and Paul J.R. Cronjé

experiments, the number of new vegetative shoots and the total number of flowers were counted on branch replications after the cessation of the summer vegetative shoot flush in February and during full bloom in October. For root growth observations, acrylic

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Amy N. Wright and Robert D. Wright

Root growth following transplanting allows a plant to exploit water and nutrient resources in the soil backfill (landscape) or container substrate and thus is a critical factor for transplant survival. The Horhizotron, a horizontal root growth measurement instrument, has been developed and evaluated for use in measuring root growth under a variety of root environments. The design of the Horhizotron includes four wedge-shaped glass quadrants that extend away from a plant's root ball allowing measurement of roots as they grow out from the original root ball. The substrate in each quadrant can be modified in order to evaluate the effect of substrate or root environment on root growth. Materials used for construction were lightweight, durable, easy to assemble, and readily available from full service building supply stores. Units were suitable for use on a greenhouse bench or outdoors in contact with the ground. Horhizotrons provided a simple, nondestructive method to measure root growth over time under a wide range of rhizosphere conditions.

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Yiwei Jiang, Yaoshen Li, Gang Nie, and Huifen Liu

in roots ( Poudel et al., 2013 ). In finger millet ( Eleusine coracana ), declines in shoot and root growth under low N were associated with decreased shoot tiller number, crown root number, total crown root length, and total lateral root length, but

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D.S. Glinski, H.A. Mills, K.J. Karnok, and R.N. Carrow

Root growth of `Penncross' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) plugs sodded into a sandy loam soil and fertilized with five 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1) were evaluated. Root growth and root: shoot ratios were higher with as the predominant N form. Results from this study indicate should be the predominant N form when rapid and extensive root development is desired for the establishment of sodded bentgrass.