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Christine Schumann, Henrik Jürgen Schlegel, Eckhard Grimm, Moritz Knoche, and Alexander Lang

changes in the curvatures of strips of fruit skin (with a layer of adhering flesh) and changes in the projected surface areas of excised flesh discs when incubated in sucrose solutions of a range of osmotic potentials. The study focused on Stage III of

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Terence L. Robinson and Bruce H. Barritt

Abbreviations: ABA, abscisic acid; c, t-ABA, cis, trans-abscisic acid; LPI, leaf plastochron index; PI, plastochron index age; ψ P , leaf turgor pressure; ψ S , leaf osmotic potential; ψ W , leaf water potential; t , t-ABA, trans, trans

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Bhaskar Bondada and Markus Keller

analyzing anatomical features and compositional attributes. Berry volume, total soluble solids, osmotic potential, and mineral nutrients. Healthy and afflicted clusters from the same vineyard were harvested, put in a zip-lock bag, and transported to the

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Moritz Knoche, Eckhard Grimm, Andreas Winkler, Merianne Alkio, and Jürgen Lorenz

cellular debris using a soft, camel-hair brush, desorbed in deionized water (at least five changes), air-dried, and then weighed on an analytical balance. Osmotic potential. T o investigate whether the stylar end of fruit with neck shriveling may have

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Moritz Knoche, Eckhard Grimm, and Henrik Jürgen Schlegel

: (kilopascals) = 5.28 (± 1.88) + 0.73 (± 0.27) depth (millimeters), r 2 = 0.22, P = 0.01, n = 29 for ‘Sam’ and (kilopascals) = 6.73 (± 2.54) + 0.84 (± 0.35) depth (millimeters), r 2 = 0.19, P = 0.02, n = 27 for ‘Samba’. ( C ) Osmotic potential ( ) and

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Annick Moing, Christel Renaud, Hélène Christmann, Lydie Fouilhaux, Yves Tauzin, Anne Zanetto, Monique Gaudillère, Frédéric Laigret, and Jacques Claverie

Rain-induced fruit cracking is a limiting factor for sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) growers in many production areas. Although many studies have concerned this complex phenomenon, the basic mechanisms involved in fruit cracking remain unclear. We re-examined the relations between osmotic potential and cracking susceptibility in cherry fruit by comparing the osmotic contribution of the major metabolites separately in flesh and skin, in four cultivars (with different levels of susceptibility to cracking) at four stages of development. Several differences were observed between flesh and skin revealing compositional gradients in the fruit tissues. Acidity and malate concentrations were higher in flesh than in skin for all stages. The absolute value of osmotic potential was higher but the contribution of the sum of sugars to osmotic potential was lower in flesh than in skin. As determined using fruit immersion test, `Fermina' and `Regina' were less susceptible to fruit cracking than `Lapins' and `Brooks'. At commercial maturity when fruit susceptibility to cracking was highest, no clear difference appeared between `Brooks' and `Lapins' compared to `Regina' and `Fermina' for flesh or skin osmolarity and for the contribution of the major sugars or organic acids to skin and flesh osmotic potential.

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Robert A. Saftner, William S. Conway, and Carl E. Sams

Changes in tissue water relations, cell wall calcium (Ca) levels and physical properties of Ca-treated and untreated `Golden Delicious' apples (Malus×domestica Borkh.) were monitored for up to 8 months after harvest. Pressure infiltration of fruit with CaCl2 solutions at concentrations up to 0.34 mol·L-1 reduced both fruit softening and air space volume of fruit in a concentration-dependent manner. Turgor potential-related stress within the fruit persisted during storage and was higher in Ca-treated than in untreated fruit. Fruit that were pressure infiltrated with CaCl2 solutions between 0.14 and 0.20 mol·L-1 and then waxed to reduce water loss during storage showed no peel injury. Calcium efflux patterns from apple tissue disks indicated two distinct Ca compartments having efflux kinetics consistent with those for cell wall Donnan-phase bound and water free space soluble Ca. At Ca concentrations up to 0.20 mol·L-1, cell wall bound Ca approached saturation whereas soluble Ca showed a linear dependence. At higher external Ca concentrations, only soluble Ca in the tissue increased. During 8 months of cold storage, cell wall Ca-binding capacity increased up to 48%. The osmotic potential of apples harvested over three seasons ranged between-1.32 and -2.33 MPa. In tissue disks, turgor potential changes caused by adjusting the osmolality of the incubation solution with CaCl2 or sorbitol were accompanied by changes in the osmotic and water potentials of the tissue. In CaCl2 solutions up to 0.34 mol·L-1, turgor potential was ≥0.6 MPa in tissue incubated in 0.14 or 0.17 mol·L-1 solutions of CaCl2 and was more than 3 times higher than in tissues incubated in low (≤0.03 mol·L-1) or high (≥0.27 mol·L-1) concentrations of CaCl2. At osmotically equivalent concentrations, turgor potential was up to 40% higher in Ca-than in sorbitol-treated tissue. The results suggest that postharvest treatment with 0.14 to 0.20 mol·L-1 solutions of CaCl2 are best for maintaining fruit water relations and storage life of `Golden Delicious' apples while minimizing the risk of salt-related injuries to the fruit. While higher concentrations of CaCl2 may better maintain firmness, these treatments adversely affect fruit water relations and increase the risk of fruit injury.

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Sven E. Svenson, Fred T. Davies Jr., and Sharon A. Duray

Gas exchange, water relations, and dry weight partitioning of shoot tip cuttings of `Eckespoint Lilo Red' (`Lilo') and `Gutbier V-10 Amy Red' (`Amy') poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wind. ex Klotzsch) were studied during the initiation and development of adventitious roots. Net photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (g) of cuttings were initially low and remained low until root primordia formation. Foliar relative water content (RWC) and osmotic potential (ψπ) increased upon formation of root primordia. Following formation of root primordia (2 days before visible root emergence) and concurrent with increasing RWC and ψπ, g increased. As roots initially emerged, A and g increased rapidly and continued to increase with further root primordia development and subsequent emergence of adventitious roots. Cutting stem and leaf dry mass and leaf area increased during the first few days after sticking cuttings. During primordium development and initial root emergence, the highest percent increase in dry weight was accounted for by basal stem sections. AU cuttings of both cultivars rooted and had similar root numbers after 23 days, but `Lilo' cuttings had 15% better rooting and 44% more roots than `Amy' after 15 days. This research supports the hypothesis that formation and elongation of root primordia coincides with increased gas exchange in poinsettia cuttings, and that gas exchange can be used as a nondestructive indicator of adventitious root development.

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Steven H. Goertz and Janice M. Coons

Seeds of two tepary bean lines (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray var. latifolius) and one navy bean cultivar (P. vulgaris L. `Fleetwood') were tested with 0.0-, – 0.3-, –0.6-, -0.9-, -1.2-, or – 1.5-MPa NaCl solutions to determine their relative salt tolerance during germination and emergence. Developmental stage was not affected at – 0.3 MPa, but with salinities more negative than -0.9 MPa, `Fleetwood' developed more slowly than the tepary lines; no plants emerged at – 1.5 MPa. Teparies tended to maintain higher water and osmotic potentials than navy over the range of NaCl concentrations used, although turgor was similar for all three genotypes. Leaf area was reduced more in navy than in white tepary at – 0.6 and – 0.9 MPa. Dry weights of navy were higher than those of either tepary bean at all NaCl concentrations, although decreases at higher salinities relative to 0.0 MPa were greater for navy than for teparies. Root: shoot ratios were higher at – 0.3 MPa than at 0.0 MPa, but were lower at the higher NaCl concentrations for all three genotypes. Overall, tepary beans tolerated NaCl better than navy. The characteristic that best indicated differences in salt tolerance was developmental stage.

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John E. Jordan, Richard H. White, James C. Thomas, Trent C. Hale, and Donald M. Vietor

Proper water management is a major responsibility of managers of creeping bentgrass grown on putting greens in the hot and humid southern states. The combination of shallow root systems, sand-based root zones, high temperatures, and high evaporative demands frequently results in severe drought stress on bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) greens. This study was initiated to determine the effects of irrigation frequency on creeping bentgrass turgor pressure and on the O2 and CO2 concentrations in a sand-based root zone mixture. In total, 81 plots, 1.5 × 1.5 m each, were established on a USGA-type root zone mixture and organized into 9 groups of 9 plots each. Each group could be irrigated individually. One plot in each group was planted to either `A-4', `Crenshaw', `Mariner', `L-93', or `Penncross' creeping bentgrass. Irrigation frequency treatments of 1-, 2-, and 4-day replacement of historical PET were imposed on three groups each. After establishment, measurements of the leaf water potential, osmotic potential, soil oxygen concentration, and soil carbon dioxide concentrations were made over a 1- to 2-year period. Bentgrass irrigated every 1 or 2 days had significantly (P = 0.05) greater turgor pressures at 0600 hr as compared to turf irrigated every 4 days in 1997. No differences were seen in 1998 due to drier environmental conditions. Concentrations of O2 and CO2 in the soil air remained in the optimal range for all treatments, indicating that lack of O2 in the root zone as a result of frequent irrigation may not be the primary cause for reduced rooting depth of bentgrass grown on highly permeable sand-based root zone mixtures.