`Redhaven' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] fruit growth, expressed as cheek diameter, displayed a double-sigmoid pattern in which four stages were defined (SI, SII, SIII, SIV). Free IAA concentration, as determined by polyclonal antibodies (PcAb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), paralleled fruit growth rate, peaking at 30 and 85 days after full bloom (AFB), concurrently with the exponential phases of growth. The highest peroxidase (EC 126.96.36.199) (POD) and IAA oxidase (IAAox) activities occurred during endocarp lignification. The main structural events described were mesocarp cell division within the first 2 weeks AFB and, later, cell enlargement, modifications of the epicarp cells, lignification of the endocarp, differentiation of the chloroplasts, and changes in their starch content. Chemical name used: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA).
A. Masia, A. Zanchin, N. Rascio, and A. Ramina
Larry S. Kennedy, Carl E. Sams, and Effin T. Graham
Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica cv. `Premium Crop') plants grown in perlite were supplied with nutrient solutions containing three levels of added boron (0.04 (severely deficient), 0.08 (moderately deficient) or 0.80 (normal) mg L-1). These treatments produced plants exhibiting either obvious (0.04 mg L-1) or no visual boron deficiency symptoms (0.08 and 0.80 mg L-1). At horticultural maturity, cross sections were taken in the upper and mid stem regions. The specimens were mounted on slides after being processed through a biological staining series. Boron availability was found to be correlated with the progressive internal deterioration of the stem which was observed histologically. An examination of staining patterns indicated that possibly a lignification process accompanies and contributes to hollow stem development. We have previously noted an increase in phenolic compounds and fiber content of broccoli produced under boron deficient conditions. The histological evidence of lignification further substantiates that boron deficiency induces changes in cell wall structure which may contribute to the development of hollow stem.
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi
The stone cells events in the process of lignifications of plant tissues in flesh of Asian pear have been growing as a depressing factor of fruit quality. Therefore, these studies were carried out to search the effect of stone cells on fruit quality, to investigate the anatomical characteristics, such as formative period and distribution of stone cell, to seek forming causes, and to determine the effects of drought stress and calcium foliar application on the formation of stone cell. Fruit quality as contents of the stone cells, such as texture profile, reducing sugars, firmness, and fruit size, were determined. During the growing season of 2002 and 2003, samples for anatomical investigations were taken periodically in Pyrus pyriforia cv. Niitaka, Pyrus communis cv. Bartlett and Pyrus ussiriansis cv. Yari. The morphology of stone cell in the fruit flesh was observed by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM).
Yu Hong, D. Creech, Wang Chuanyong, Gu Yin, and He Shanan
Blueberries are now the hot point of fruit development in China. Researches conducted in the past since 1980s include mainly introduction and propagation. More than 30 cultivars of rabbiteye blueberries and southern highbush blueberries were introduced successfully in the Nanjing Botanical garden in late 1980s. For dormant cuttings of 4 rabbiteye blueberry cultivars Gardenblue, Tifblue, Climax, and Premier the rooting percentage could reach 84%, 52%, 62%, and 79% respectively under interrupted misting. Lignification of the cuttings seemed the key point for rooting. For soft cuttings the rooting percentage can reach 90% to 95% with chemical treatments. Seedling selection has been conducted and some promising individuals are under observation. So far, there were little experiments on cultural practice under taken. But looking at the difference of soils between the blueberry growing areas in the US and China it seems that there are a series of aspects should be researched in the future.
Mingqi Wang and Lixin Peng
Physiological, biochemical and anatomical indexes were investigated for rose hardiness. It was found that bound/free water ratio, proline accumulation, photosynthetic rate, palisade/spongy tissue ratio, and lignification of winter-acclimated stems were heavily influenced by the temperature causing stem browning. Spongy cell volume and stem tenderness were inversely related to winter hardiness. Data generated from this research demonstrated that catalase stability, TTC reduction rate at 0°C, total photosynthetic rate, stem pith ray number, and leaf wax thickness are good indicators for rose hardiness to freezing temperatures. Two compound indexes were developed through the main component analysis. Based on the results obtained from 12 tested cultivars, these indexes are ideal to quantify hardiness of rose germplasm.
Naveen Kumar and Robert C. Ebel
5-Chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) is an abscission agent, standardized for the mechanical harvesting of late season ‘Valencia’ sweet oranges in Florida. This work was conducted to investigate the role of CMNP to induce oxidative stress in the abscission zone (AZ) of ‘Valencia’ sweet orange. Fully mature ‘Valencia’ sweet orange trees in a commercial grove were sprayed with 2.0 mm of CMNP. The experiment was repeated three times during the Apr.–May 2013 harvest season. Fruit were harvested at 0, 1, 2, and 3 days after CMNP application. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOD), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD), and lipoxygenase (LOX) specific activities were measured 0, 1, 2, and 3 days after CMNP treatment (DAT). Rate of lipid peroxidation remains unchanged throughout the abscission period. However, LOX activity increased 1 DAT in AZ of treated fruit, which might produce jasmonic acid (JA), known to promote abscission in citrus. Levels of H2O2 were similar in the AZ of control and treated fruit except at 3 DAT. The specific activity of SOD declined at 2 DAT, which showed compromised SOD defense against superoxide radicals (O·−). APOD activity declined sharply at 3 DAT. Interestingly, GR activity was 1.9-fold higher in CMNP-treated fruit at 3 DAT. Higher GR and low APOD activity reflects limited functioning of the APOD/GR cycle (e.g., APOD and GR) in scavenging of H2O2 at 3 DAT. Guaiacol POD activity transiently increased at 1 DAT and then declined. POD plays an important role in cell wall lignification and indole acetic acid (IAA) oxidation. The decline in POD activity may cause a decrease in lignification while higher activity made the AZ sensitive to ethylene and thus promote abscission in citrus fruit. This work also showed that CMNP-induced abscission is a collaborative effort of oxidative metabolism in flavedo tissue (FT) and AZ.
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi
The stone cells are observed in the process of lignifications of tissues in flesh of pear as a depressing factor of fruit quality. These studies were carried out to search the effect of stone cells on fruit quality, to investigate the anatomical characteristics, such as formative period and distribution of stone cell, to seek forming causes. During the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003, samples for anatomical investigations were taken periodically in Pyrus pyriforia cv. Niitaka, P. communis cv. Bartlett and P. ussiriansis cv. Yari. The morphology of stone cell in the fruit flesh was observed by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). By optical microscope, stone cell observed first from 14 days after full bloom. The adjacent cells to stone cell was first showed spherical type on initial forming stage but showed radial form at 90 days after full bloom. The shape of stone cell inspected by SEM was like a cluster and its size was various. By using TEM, components of stone cell, such as nucleus and vacuole, and secondary cell wall thickening were observed, so it could consider that the stone cell is living thing. The largest amount of stone cell clusters existed beneath fruit skin.
Brian K Maynard and Nina L. Bassuk
New shoot growth of Carpinus betulus `fastigiata' was treated with stockplant etiolation and stem banding treatments and sampled for anatomical study at intervals over a 16-week period of greening following etiolation. Shading effects on the anatomy of the stem were also investigated. Numerous anatomical changes were noted with stem age and stockplant treatment. Among these were etiolation effects on the lignification of the secondary xylem, thickness of the periderm, and an increase in the percentage of sclereid-free gaps in the perivascular sclerenchyma, Stem banding increased the widths of the cortex and pith. Concomitant propagation studies revealed significant etiolation, shading, and banding effects on rooting percentages and root numbers. Using multiple linear regression methods rooting capacity was modelled best by linear combinations of the widths of the pith, non-lignified secondary xylem, cortical parenchyma and periderm, as well as the percentage of gaps in the sclerenchymatic sheath remaining non-sclerified. It is proposed that the development of sclereids in potential rooting sites reduces rooting potential. The exclusion of light during initial shoot development retards sclereid development by up to 3 months following treatment, which correlates well with observed increases in the rooting potential of etiolated and/or banded stems.
Onil Bergeron, Mohammed S. Lamhamedi, Hank A. Margolis, Pierre Y. Bernier, and Debra C. Stowe
Air-slit containerized (IPL 25-350A) black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill) BSP; 1+0] seedlings, were subjected to four irrigation regimes (IR-15%, IR-30%, IR-45%, and IR-60%, by volume, cm3 water/cm3 substrate) under tunnel conditions in a forest nursery. Irrigation regimes were controlled by time-domain reflectometry during the first growing season. With exception of midday water potential, water relation and gas exchange variables were unaffected by substrate water content. There were no significant differences in height, diameter or number of needle primordia of the seedlings grown under IR-15%, IR-30%, and IR-45%. Seedlings grown in a substrate with a high water content (IR-60%) had lower oven-dry biomass and higher cuticular transpiration rates than seedlings grown under the three other irrigation regimes. Root hydraulic conductivity was not affected by irrigation regime, but showed a general decrease towards the end of the growing season. Variation in root hydraulic conductivity was most likely related to root growth and degree of lignification. Seedlings that had been exposed to IR-60% during the first growing season remained smaller than the other seedlings throughout the second growing season. Results of this study indicate that nursery managers can reduce the quantity of irrigation water used without significantly affecting the growth or physiology of air-slit containerized black spruce seedlings (1+0) grown under tunnel conditions.
Kay P. Gersch, Carl E. Motsenbocker, and Gregory A. Lang
Of eight genotypes of cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) examined, two were identified that differ significantly in ease of fruit detachment force. Greenhouse and field-grown plants of these genotypes, Cajun 1-9027 and Cap-9004, were investigated for differences in cell type and organization at the fruit and receptacle junction. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that mature Cajun 1-9027 fruit that did not separate exhibited a distinct region of sclerified cells that extended from the periphery of the fruit into the receptacle for 25 to 30 cell layers. In contrast, mature fruit of the more readily detachable Cap-9004 had 10 to 15 layers of sclerified cells at the region of detachment. Histochemical and stereological techniques indicated that Cajun 1-9027 had a greater volume of sclereids than Cap-9004. Cajun 1-9027 exhibited smaller cortical cells in the detachment region than Cap-9004. Neither genotype exhibited a well-defined abscission zone at maturity in the detachment region. The presence of more sclerified cells and increased lignification in Cajun 1-9027 compared to Cap-9004 probably contributed to the differences in ease of detachment between the two genotypes.