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Celia M. Cantín, Carlos H. Crisosto, and Kevin R. Day

loss of flavor and its extent is genotype affected ( Crisosto et al., 1999 ; Dodd, 1984 ; Taylor et al., 1995 ). These storage symptoms are called internal breakdown or chilling injury (CI). Gel breakdown is a gelatinous appearance of the flesh

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James P. Mattheis

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism of apples (watercore, internal breakdown, low temperature and carbon dioxide injuries) Bot. Rev. 35 168 194 Kupferman, E. 2003 Controlled atmosphere storage of apples and pears Acta Hort

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Max G. Villalobos-Acuña, William V. Biasi, Sylvia Flores, Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Rachel B. Elkins, and Neil H. Willits

be stored for 2 to 3 months in air under ideal conditions at –1 to 0 °C. The postharvest life of ‘Bartlett’ pears generally is limited by the appearance of scald (storage or senescent scald) and internal breakdown, physiological disorders

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Denise Neilsen, Gerry Neilsen, Sunghee Guak, and Tom Forge

end point with data expressed as g/100 mL malic acid equivalents. An additional random subsample of 10 fruit at harvest was used to calculate incidence of disorders including water core, sunburn, internal breakdown, and bitter pit. Analysis of variance

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Myong-Dong Cho, Yong-Koo Kim, and Hee-Seung Park

`Yumyeong' peach has the desirable characteristics of long shelf-life and specific non-melting nature with a long harvest period. However, some fruits harvested too late show fruit pithiness symptoms or internal breakdown. This study was conducted to analyze the differences between fruit flesh pithiness and internal breakdown symptoms and to find out the source of flesh pithiness in `Yumyeong' peach. The rate of flesh pithiness was higher in fruit harvested late in the season. Sugar and malic acid contents showed no differences between the normal and flesh pithiness fruits, but the acidity was significantly lower and was affected by low citric acid content in flesh pithiness fruit. In flesh pithiness fruits, calcium contents were low both in skin and flesh. Occurrence of flesh pithiness fruits was high in the years with low precipitation and high temperature for 2 months before harvest. In observations on morphological characteristics, the parts showing flesh pithiness consisted of smaller cells than the normal parts. Tonoplasts disintegrated and the number of dead cells was high in internal breakdown fruits, while the tonoplasts were intact, with contracted vacuoles, in flesh pithiness fruits. Tylosises were observed in vascular tissues around the flesh pithiness; therefore, it was assumed that those tylosises restrict flesh tissue development, resulting in flesh pithiness. Other varieties (`Fantasia', `Wolmi' and `Hakuto') also showed tylosis, and smaller cells were observed in the flesh tissue of these cultivars, indicating abnormal growth of the flesh part. These results suggest the possibility of the occurrence of pithiness-like symptoms in other peach varieties.

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Carlos H. Crisosto, R. Scott Johnson, Kevin Day, and Ted DeJong

Studies on the influences of “orchard factors” such as cultivar, harvest time, crop load, fruit canopy position, irrigation, and nitrogen regimes were investigated for plums, nectarines, and peaches at the Kearney Agricultural Center (San Joaquin Valley, Calif.a). These preharvest factors affected internal browning and mealiness incidence differently. More-reliable benefits of treatments to eliminate or reduce internal breakdown may be accomplished by using outer canopy fruit. Optimum quality expression and subsequent consumer satisfaction for each cultivar can be achieved by understanding the role of preharvest factors and harvest time on fruit quality and potential postharvest life.

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Jayson K. Harper and George M. Greene II

This study quantifies the discounts and premiums associated with various quality factors for processing apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Discounts and premiums were estimated using a hedonic price model and quality data from a total of 137 samples representing three processing apple cultivars (45 `York Imperial', 43 `Rome Beauty', and 49 `Golden Delicious'). Price discounts in the sample were statistically significant for fruit size, bruising, bitter pit, decay, misshapen apples, and internal breakdown. Commonly cited defects, such as insect damage and apple scab, did not cause significant price discounts.

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S.R. Drake, E.A. Mielke, and D.C. Elfving

`Concorde' pears from three plantings were harvested at various maturities, stored in regular (RA) or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage and their quality evaluated. Starting at a firmness of 57.0 N (12.81 lbf), `Concorde' pears can be harvested over a period of 14 days with no loss in quality and be good candidates for either RA or CA storage. A 14-day delay in harvest resulted in a one box size increase. Regardless of the time of harvest, `Concorde' pears can be stored in RA for periods not to exceed 90 days. RA storage beyond 90 days resulted in reduced appearance, poor pedicel condition, and enhanced internal breakdown. Early harvest should be considered when RA storage is expected to exceed 90 days; however astringency may develop. Regardless of harvest, `Concorde' pears can be stored for 180 days in CA with no quality loss, particularly if the CA composition is 1.5% oxygen (O2) and 1.0% carbon dioxide (CO2). Internal breakdown can be a problem in CA if the CO2 exceeds 1.0%. Low O2 (<1.5%) CA is not recommended for `Concorde' pears.

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Laura J. Lehman and George M. Greene II

A two year study of `Golden Delicious' and `York Imperial' apple responses to delayed cooling and CA storage imposition after harvest was completed in 1991. Apples from six to eight commercial orchards were harvested at an acceptable maturity level for long-term storage, subjected to a delay in refrigeration (0,3, or 6 days) followed by a delay in CA storage imposition (0,14, or 28 days), and then stored at 0°c, 2.4% oxygen, and 1.6% carbon dioxide for up to eight months. Fruit acidity, soluble solids content, bitter pit incidence, scald, internal breakdown, and the development of low oxygen injury were not influenced by the delays. Delays often resulted in more rot and excessive weight loss during storage. Delays in both cooling and CA storage imposition had an additive effect on fruit softening, such that the longest delays resulted in the softest fruit.

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Ahmed F. El-Shiekh and David H. Picha

Peaches stored in air for 40 days at OC developed severe internal breakdown and poor quality after transferring them to 20C to ripen. Comparable fruit stored under controlled atmosphere (1% O2 + 5% CO2) and then ripened at 20C had no breakdown and retained good quality. Fruit stored under CA had less reducing sugars but more sucrose than air stored fruit. Fruit pH increased and titratable acidity decreased over a 40 day storage period. Citric acid increased slightly while malic acid decreased during storage. Little or no differences in overall acidity and individual organic acids existed between CA and air storage. Little or no change in individual phenolic acid content occurred during storage or between CA and air storage. Internal color darkened and became redder with storage. CA stored fruit was significantly firmer than air stored fruit. Sensory evaluation indicated CA stored fruit was more acidic, sweeter, and had better overall flavor than air stored fruit.