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Thomas E. Marler and Nirmala Dongol

. micronesica plant’s reproductive events been completely devoid of this direct damage by the insect herbivory. Research is warranted to determine the influence of this direct herbivory of seed surfaces on carbohydrate relations of the developing seeds, and how

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Brian K. Hogendorp, Raymond A. Cloyd, and John M. Swiader

insect herbivory: Response to Massay, Ennos, and Hartley J. Anim. Ecol. 77 631 633 Ma, J.F. Miyake, Y. Takahashi, E. 2001 Silicon as a beneficial element for crop plants, p. 17–40. In: Datnoff, L.E., G.H. Snyder, and G.H. Korndörfer (eds.). Silicon in

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Panthip Boonsong, Natta Laohakunjit, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, and Frank B. Matta

. Manetas, Y. 2006 The importance of being red when young: Anthocyanins and the protection of young leaves of Quercus coccifera from insect herbivory and excess light Tree Physiol. 26 613 621 Khanavi, M. Hajimahmoodi, M. Cheraghi-Niroomand, M. Kargar, Z

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Raul I. Cabrera, James A. Reinert, and Cynthia B. McKenney

. Hort. 16 143 147 Hargrove, W.W. Crossley D.A. Jr Seastedt, T.R. 1984 Shifts in insect herbivory in the canopy of black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia , after fertilization Oikos 43 322 328

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Geoffrey Dervishian, and Robert L. Wample

between marketable and unmarketable fruit (fruit displaying >30% disease damage or insect herbivory). However, in both years, there was no unmarketable fruit. All treatments were harvested on the same day. Average cluster weight was calculated by dividing

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Alan W. Meerow, Stewart T. Reed, Christopher Dunn, and Elena Schnell

Phenotypic space and floral typology: Towards an objective assessment of pollination syndromes. Norske Vidensk.-Akad. I. Mat. Naturvid. Kl. Skrif., Ny Ser. 39:149–159 Pare, P.W. Tumlinson, J.H. 1997 De novo biosynthesis of volatiles induced by insect

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Sophie Rochefort, Yves Desjardins, David J. Shetlar, and Jacques Brodeur

( Richmond et al., 2000 ; Thompson et al., 1989 ), where the proportion of endophyte-infected grass increased over time. Such an increase was associated with a better ability of infected plants to survive under stress conditions such as drought and insect

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Huihui Liu, Ke Cao, Gengrui Zhu, Weichao Fang, Changwen Chen, Xinwei Wang, and Lirong Wang

] cultivars during fruit development J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 15 809 819 Karageorgou, P. Manetas, Y. 2006 The importance of being red when young: Anthocyanins and the protection of young leaves of Quercus coccifera from insect herbivory and excess light Tree

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Yingmei Ma, and Emily Merewitz

insect herbivory or fungal invasion. These responses all require significant modification of many phytohormones and energy to be performed. The preventative responses may only serve as a benefit to the plant if the plants are subsequently attacked by a

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Matthew A. Escobar, Andrew Shilling, Pine Higgins, Sandra L. Uratsu, and Abhaya M. Dandekar

), and several recent studies have provided strong support for a role in plant defense against pathogens and insects. In some plant species, insect herbivory strongly induces PPO activity in vivo ( Constabel et al., 2000 ; Ruuhola et al., 2008 ), and the