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Kim E. Hummer

Clonal Repository to be established in the NPGS. It was dedicated in May 1981. Species of strawberries, raspberries and blackberries, currants and gooseberries, and blueberries and cranberries were assigned to the NCGR–Corvallis because of the commercial

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Todd A. Burnes, Robert A. Blanchette, Jason A. Smith, and James J. Luby

Gooseberries and currants belong to the genus Ribes and include many native species and cultivars used for ornamental plantings and fruit production in North America. Breeding programs in North America and Europe have focused on producing Ribes

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Moritz Knoche, Eckhard Grimm, and Henrik Jürgen Schlegel

canescens Bois) or from field-grown european plum (‘Doppelte Hauspflaume’ grafted on Prunus insitia L. ‘St. Julien A’), gooseberry (‘Invicta’), red currant (‘Rovada’), black currant (‘Titania’), and blueberry (‘Elliott’) at the Horticultural Research

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Chad E. Finn and John R. Clark

Crop Listings z : Almond Rootstock, Apple, Apple Rootstock, Apricot and Pubescent-Skinned Prunophora Hybrids, Apricot Rootstock, Blackberry, Blueberry, Blue Honeysuckle, Cactus Pear, Citrus, Cranberry, Currant, Elderberry, Gooseberry, Grape, Grape

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Ed Mashburn

In North America for many years the commonly held solution to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer) (WPBR) was to eradicate all currants and gooseberries (Ribes L.). That approach was tried to no avail. Can currants and gooseberries be successfully grown in North America? You bet they can! Vast areas of the United States and Canada are ideal for Ribes production. Black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) are a processed fruit and production may compare to that of grain. Many of the areas that presently grow other berries could easily grow Ribes. The main barriers for production in North America are state restrictions and the availability of up-to-date information and data for growers, processors, legislators and the consuming public. I suggest that this conference and the people herein form that task group and initiate the cooperative dialogue and set forth a process to approach the WPBR problem in a holistic manner.

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Wes Messinger, Aaron Liston, and Kim Hummer

The Pacific Northwest boasts a remarkable diversity of wild currants and gooseberries (Ribes). Of nearly 150 species worldwide, 34 occur in the region. All but two infrageneric taxa are represented, including close relatives of the black currants, red currants, and cultivated gooseberries. High ecological diversity parallels this taxonomic diversity: a Ribes species occurs in nearly every terrestrial habitat, from sea level to above treeline, and from swamp to desert. This diversity is a valuable source of agronomically important genes for the plant breeder. In addition, wild Ribes represent a relatively unexplored source of ornamental shrubs. Habit and habitat of a number of species of interest are described and illustrated. An annotated list of species, subspecies, and varieties native to the Pacific Northwest is presented with discussion of taxonomic proximity to Cultivated varieties, range, natural habitat, and ornamental potential.

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Kim Hummer and Donna Gerten

In commercial growing regions the bloom period for currants and gooseberries is critical to crop development because of potentially damaging spring frosts. Breeding programs in northern latitudes include selection for frost avoidance mechanisms such as late blooming tendencies. Corvallis climate is milder than Ribes production regions, with the average winter minimum temperature about 10C and the coldest recorded April temperature of -5C in 1926. The last spring frost occurs by April 14 on average. About 30 cultivars and species selections of currants and about that same number of gooseberries were evaluated for blooming and fruiting at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository. Dates of first bloom, last bloom, first ripening, and last ripening during 1987 through 1989 were collected. The longest ripening period, 93 days, occurred in 1989 on a selection of R. burejense F. Schmidt. The shortest ripening period in 1989 was 70 days, occurring in many black currant cultivars including Black September, Crusader, Coronet, and Invigo. These same cultivars required a range from 62 to 66 days to ripen m 1987. For the years examined thus far, the earliest ripening dates occurred in 1987, starting as early as Julian date 150; the latest ripening date (192, Julian) occurred in 1988. Data from 1990 will be presented. The climate in the Pacific Northwest is favorable for the production of currants and gooseberries.

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Todd M. Morrissey and William A. Gustafson Jr.

A study was designed to determine if current dormant-bud cryopreservation techniques investigated on woody plants, such as apple (Malus domestica), gooseberry (Ribes), blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and pear (Pryus communis) etc., could be applied to certain nut tree species for long-term preservation. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) and black walnut (Juglans nigra) were exposed to prefreezing temperatures ranging from -10° C to -40° C and then directly immersed in liquid nitrogen for 2 hrs. Dehydration by prefreezing was not sufficient for bud survival in pecan. Bud survival was increased by dehydrating stem sections prior to prefreezing. Prefreezing at -30° or -40° C was suitable for survival of black walnut.

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D.R. Bergdahl and H.B. Teillon

White pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fischer) has been present in Vermont and other northeastern states since the early 1900s. The fungus is commonly observed on currants and gooseberries (Ribes L.) every year, but incidence varies on eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Our general impression has been that Vermont has had a relatively low level of infection on eastern white pines; however, we recently found rust incidence in Christmas tree plantings in northern Vermont to range from 10 to 42% (average 20%) based on 721 trees surveyed. Also, in pole-sized stands in southern Vermont, incidence ranged from 12 to 46% (average 32%) and 76% of these trees had main stem infections. In the southern survey, 98% of wild ribes plants had varied amounts of both urediniospores and teliospores. These preliminary survey data suggest that incidence of WPBR may be more significant than previously thought and therefore, additional survey work is needed. We screened cultivars of Ribes for susceptibility to WPBR. Eighteen cultivars were inoculated in the field with a mass collection of aeciospores of C. ribicola. The percentages of leaf area infected ranged from 0 to 49 for the urediniospore stage and from 0 to 55 for teliospores. The gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa L.) `Welcome' had the highest percentage of leaf area with urediniospores, while black currants (R. nigrum L.) `Coronet,' `Consort,' and `Crusader' had no visible infection. Presently, Vermont has no WPBR regulations. However, previous federal laws did restrict black currant cultivation. Little is known about the genetic diversity of WPBR or its potential for change. Caution must be used when considering any cultivation of Ribes for the purpose of producing fruit because our valued white pine resources could be negatively impacted.

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Steven McKay

Recent interest in expanding commercial currant and gooseberry (Ribes L.) plantings in the United States has put pressure on the states with Ribes restrictions to review their regulations. A meeting on 9 January 1998 initiated discussion between the state agriculture regulatory agencies, forest pathologists, and horticulturists. Since then a white pine blister rust (WPBR), Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer) World Wide Web (Web) site (McKay, 1998) and list serve have been activated to facilitate communication. Vermont is a state that has no regulations on the books at this time. Connecticut and New York also have mentioned that infection rates are low. Maine retains a Ribes reduction program, and Massachusetts is strictly enforcing their regulations. The following summarizes the general consensus among the majority of regulating states: 1) It is desirable to find a way for both white pines (Pinus L.) and commercial Ribes plantings to coexist. 2) More research is needed to survey existing Ribes and pines, the potential impact of commercial plantings versus the impact of existing Ribes, and the potential impact of escape /volunteer seedlings from immune Ribes cultivars. 3) There is interest in permitting immune Ribes cultivars to be planted. 4) There is interest in having consistency in regulations from state to state.