`Marsh' white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) harvested from exterior canopy positions were less tolerant of 0.5 or 1.0 kGy irradiation than were interior fruit. Irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, or 1.0 kGy resulted in 0.0%, 24.3%, and 37.5% surface pitting of fruit, respectively. Pitting was reduced 30% by temperature conditioning with vapor heat at 38 or 42 °C for 2 hours. Exterior canopy fruit had ≈2-fold more pitting, had greater weight loss, and were firmer than interior canopy fruit. Fruit weight loss increased and firmness decreased as conditioning temperature and irradiation dose increased. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and flavor decreased with increasing irradiation dose. The peel of exterior canopy grapefruit was damaged more by irradiation than was that of interior fruit, but irradiation damage was reduced by temperature conditioning.
William R. Miller and Roy E. McDonald
Derek P. Whitelock, Gerald H. Brusewitz, Michael W. Smith, and Xihai Zhang
This study examined the effects of high humidity (>95%) and airflow on fresh peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] quality. Peaches were stored in high airflow at 98%, 88%, and 67% relative humidity (RH) (6, 5.6, and 4.3C, respectively) and negligible airflow at 100%, 95%, and 81% RH (6, 5.6, and 4.3C, respectively). Fruit weight loss, penetrometer force, impact variables, and bruise occurrence from a single 15-cm drop impact were measured over 20 days of storage. Fruit stored at a low vapor pressure deficit had a lower rate of weight loss, with drop impact values characteristic of firmer fruit than fruit stored at higher vapor pressure deficits. High airflow increased weight loss and decreased fruit firmness, but had only a secondary effect on localized humidity. Penetrometer force and bruise occurrence were less sensitive than drop impact variables in detecting differences in fruit firmness due to treatments.
Harvey E. Arjona, Frank B. Matta, and James O. Garner Jr.
Vine-ripened yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) packed and shipped from Homestead, Fla., were stored for 15, 30, or 45 days at 5, 10, or 15C. Fruit analyzed immediately on arrival had the best external appearance and highest fruit weight. Fruit weight loss increased with storage time at all temperatures and the response was linear. Fruit external appearance deteriorated rapidly at 5 and 15C. Pulp percentage at 5C increased linearly with storage duration and did not change at 10C. Pulp percentage at 15C changed quadratically with storage time, increasing up to 30 days and then decreasing by 45 days. Soluble solids concentration did not change at 5 or 10C, but decreased linearly at 15C. Sucrose content decreased quadratically at 5C, linearly at 15C, but increased linearly at 10C. Fructose and glucose content decreased quadratically with storage time at 15C. Glucose content increased linearly at 5 and 10C and fructose content did not change at these temperatures.
K.C. Shellie and R.L. Mangan
Market demand exists in the United States for fresh mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit weighing >700 g, yet fruit of this size cannot be imported for lack of a quarantine treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Therefore, the objectives of this research were to evaluate the influence of fruit infestation method on mortality of late third instar, fruit fly larvae after fruit were immersed in hot water, and to generate dose mortality and fruit quality data for mangoes >700 g. Results suggested that artificial infestation is preferable to cage infestation because artificial infestation eliminates the direct influence of fruit weight loss on the heat dose delivered to the fruit center. Other advantages of artificial over cage infestation include: fruit maturity at treatment is similar to commercial application, mortality of untreated control fruit can be calculated, larval maturity is uniform and observable, and larvae can be placed into the slowest heating part of the fruit. Infesting with 50 rather than 25 larvae per fruit was preferred because the number of larvae placed into the fruit did not influence mortality and twice as many larvae were evaluated using the same number of fruit. The dose mortality and fruit quality data generated in this research suggest that immersion in water at 46.1 °C for 110 minutes may provide Probit 9 level quarantine security against Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) for mangoes weighing up to 900 g without adversely affecting fruit market quality.
J.G. Diaz and J.E. Manzano-Méndez
Lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) fruits grown at the Andes farms, T·chira State in Venezuela, were harvested at the mature green stage, selected, washed, and transported to the postharvest Lab. Fruits were stored in small commercial carton boxes in storage rooms at 5, 10, and 15 °C during 3 weeks. Chemical parameters such as solid soluble concentration (SSC), pH, tritatable acidity (TA), ratio SSC/TA, and physical parameters such as Color: L*, Hue, Chroma, color index (a+b)/L × 100, texture and fresh fruit weight loss (FFWL), in pulp extract and from the whole fruit were analyzed at the initial and at the end of each storage week. These characteristics ranged in the fellowing way: SSC: 749% ± 8.09% and its media of 8.02%, TA: 1.05%–1.18% for temperature and 1.01–1.27 for storage time with an average of 1.16% (expressed as citric acid), color index: 4.54–5.22 for storage time and 4.30–5.13 for storage temperatures with an average of 4.86, chroma: 6.21–6.63 for storage time and 6.00–6.55 for storage temperatures with an average of 6.36, FFWL: 1.30%–1.44% for storage temperature and 0.67%–2.11% for storage time .The SSC decreased with increasing the storage temperature. The TA, color index, and chroma decreased with the storage time and increased with storage time, the FFWL values increased with storage temperatures and with storage time.
L.P. Martins and S.M. Silva
Spondias mombim L. fruit, commonly known in the Brazilian Northeast as “caj,” has increased its acceptance locally and abroad in recent years due to its exotic and delicious pulp. Spondias mombim fruit can be eaten raw or as juice, jellies, and sweet. Trade in S. mombim, however, has been limited by the highly perishable nature of the fruit. Comprehensive studies on proper postharvest technologies for its storage and enhanced shelflife are required to improve its commercial performance. The determination of proper storage temperature allows reducing the rate of metabolism without causing chilling injury. In addition, modified atmosphere packaging, by using low-density polyethylene (LDPE), may delay fruit ripening. Combination of proper temperature and film O2 and CO2 permeabilities, therefore, may enhance the postharvest shelflife of S. mombim fruits. Ripened fruits were stored with and without film, at temperatures varying from 16 °C to 5 °C, at 0.5 °C steps, in order to set proper storage temperature and shelflife. Changes in fruit weight loss, firmness, soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, CO2 production, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids contents were measured during storage. Storage of S. mombim, wrapped with LDPE, at 8 °C allowed quality maintenance and increased the fruit postharvest shelflife by 12 days, without causing chilling injury.
J.E. Manzano-Méndez and J.G. Diaz
Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea L.) fruits, grown in the Venezuela Andes farms, were harvested at mature-green stage, graded, selected, washed, and transported to the posharvest lab. for analysis. Fruits were stored into plastic containers in storage rooms at (5, 10, and 15 °C for 3 weeks. The soluble solid concentration (SSC), pH, tritatable acidity (TA), ratio SSC/TA, color: L*, Hue, Chroma, color index (a+b)/L × 100, texture, and fresh fruit weight loss (FFWL) in pulp extract and in the whole fruit were determined on the first day of harvest and at the end of each storage week. These parameters ranged as follows: SSC: 7.92–8.84%, pH: 4.06–4.35, TA: 1.14%–1.21% (expressed as citric acid), SSC/TA: 1.58–1.75, Chroma 42.72—45.54, FFWL: 0.83% at the second storage day to 4.39% at the 3rd storage week. Also, FFWL was 1.03%–1.40% for 10 and 15 °C, respectively. Fruits stored at the highest temperature increased pH values, the TA decreased with stored time, the Chroma and FFWL values increased with the increasing temperature and storage time.
Todd C. Wehner, Nischit V. Shetty, and L. George Wilson
All available cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultigens were tested for combining ability for fruit storage ability by crossing them with the gynoecious inbred Gy 14. Fruit weight and firmness were measured before and after storage, and fruits were rated for water loss after storage. The cultigens with the lowest percentage of fruit weight loss during storage were PI 172839, PI 344067, PI 264667, PI 171612, PI 339245, PI 220171, PI 279469, and PI 368550; those with the lowest percentage of loss in fruit firmness were PI 379284, PI 339241, PI 414159, PI 422177, `Regal', PI 109483, `Addis', PI 285603, PI 257486, and `Calypso'. The cultigens demonstrating the least fruit shriveling were `Dasher II', `Sprint 440', `Texas Long', PI 390255, PI 432870, `Pacer', PI 419078, PI 390247, PI 321011, and PI 414158. The 10 best cultigens from the initial screening study, along with the four worst cultigens and six checks, were retested directly (not as F1 progeny) for fruit keeping ability in two storage conditions and at two harvest dates. No significant differences were detected between the two harvest dates and storage conditions.
Abdul Hakim, Errki Kaukovirta, Eija Pehu, and Irma Voipio
Hot water treatment at 38, 42, 46, 50, and 54 °C for 30 60 and 90 minutes were applied to mature green tomatoes before storing at 2°C for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Control fruit were treated at 20°C water. After storage all fruit were held at 20°C for 7 days. Control fruit showed lower weight loss, lycopene content, pH, and TSS but higher decay, chlorophyll content, TA, and more Firmness than hot-water-treated fruit. Weight loss, lycopene content, pH, and TSS were progressively increased with increased water temperature from 38 to 54°C, while chlorophyll content, TA and fruit firmness were declined. Among hot-water-treated fruit, least decay were detected in fruit treated at 46°C water 6 weeks stored fruit showed higher weight loss, more decay, lower chlorophyll and lycopene content, TSS, TA, less firmer and higher pH than those fruit stored for 2 or 4 weeks. Increased immersion time from 30 to 90 minutes resulted higher weight loss, lower decay, chlorophyll content, TA, and less firm, but higher lycopene content, TSS, and pH.
Celia M. Cantín, Carlos H. Crisosto, and Kevin R. Day
were also used frequently to monitor weight loss and gas composition. Fruit weight loss. Fruit from all of the boxes from each treatment replication were weighed during the packing operation and reweighed five times during the 60-d storage period at 0