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Kelly Gude, Cary L. Rivard, Sara E. Gragg, Kimberly Oxley, Petros Xanthopoulos, and Eleni D. Pliakoni

., 2009 ; Lantz et al., 2010 ; Roos and Jones, 2016 ). Evaporative cooling or the technique of supplemental irrigation by microjet or sprinkler in addition to drip tape during plant propagation or at planting has shown to delay flowering and increase

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Fan-Hsuan Yang, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine C. Strik

HortScience 46 95 101 Chu, W. Gao, H. Cao, S. Fang, X. Chen, H. Xiao, S. 2017 Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry ( Vaccinium spp.) fruits Food Chem. 219 436 442 Evans, R.G. 2004 Energy balance of apples under evaporative cooling Amer

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Guadalupe Osorio and Daniel H. Díaz

Chilling accumulation infuence dormancy of grapevines and determines budbreak. Under desert conditions, hydrogen cyanamide (H2CN2) improve bud opening. To increase even further the quantity and uniformity of bud break, the effect of fall evap rative cooling (EC) alone or in combination with H2CN2(2.5%v/v was evaluated. Microsplinklers operated for 40 seconds at 10 min intervals from 10:00 h to 17:00 h, from 20 oct to 18 dec 1990. H2CN2 was applied on 21 dec, one day after pruning.

Cyanamide treated plants or with the chemical + EC, had 19% and 32% budbreak, respectively, by jan 15. Control or EC vines opened until feb 20, and reached 40% and 57% final values by mar 25. Therefore, cyanamide and EC acted sinergisti cally to open buds earlier and uniformily, although not on final budbreak.

Harvest started may 8 with cyanamide + EC, five days earlier than cyanamide alone; by may 13, accumulated harvest was 39% and 13% respectively, and of 92% and 77% by may 28. Control vines with or without EC, were harvested early may to mid june.

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P. Parchomchuk and M. Meheriuk

Pulsed application of overtree irrigation for evaporative cooling of `Jonagold' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) reduced visible solar injury by 15.8% (1991) and 9.4% (1992). Maximum fruit surface temperature was reduced by 8.1 °C on a day when the average surface mean of nonsprayed fruit rose to 45.6 °C. Air heated more slowly than the exposed fruit surface and was cooled only 1 to 2 °C by overtree irrigation. Cooling did not affect fruit size, firmness, or redness but reduced soluble solids concentration and increased titratable acidity. Storage breakdown was unaffected in the first year but was reduced by 6.0% in the second year.

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Fan-Hsuan Yang, David R. Bryla, and R. Troy Peters

fruit and irrigation water. A simple energy balance model was likewise used to predict potential water use during evaporative cooling in wine grape ( Caravia et al., 2017 ). In this study, we developed an energy balance model specifically for northern

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Fan-Hsuan Yang, David R. Bryla, Scott T. Orr, Bernadine C. Strik, and Yanyun Zhao

include the use of kaolin-based particle film, shade nets, and evaporative cooling. Kaolin particle film is not an option for blueberry because the surface residue is difficult to remove ( Spiers et al., 2003 ). Shade net successfully reduces fruit surface

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E. Barclay Poling

strategy just as overvine sprinkling in late winter during unseasonably warm weather to delay budbreak is a passive strategy. It is possible to use sprinkling for “evaporative cooling” on days in late winter that are unseasonably warm such as occurred in

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David M. Glenn

during the 10 years of the study. Fruit red color was improved in 5 of 10 years by the PF treatments; similar fruit color responses have been reported ( Glenn et al., 2005 ). Evaporative cooling increases dry matter partitioning to fruit and increases

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Ryo Matsuda, Chieri Kubota, M. Lucrecia Alvarez, and Guy A. Cardineau

.2 m and 3.7 m, respectively. A fan-and-pad evaporative cooling system and an overhead heating system were used to control air temperature of the greenhouse when it was greater than 25 °C during the day or cooler than 15 °C at night. Air temperature

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, and Richard L. Harkess

study ( Li et al., 2019 ). However, the evaporative cooling effect as a result of sidewall water loss may be beneficial for plant root growth and survival at locations with hot summer conditions ( Nambuthiri et al., 2015 ). In addition, the lighter color