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Rosalía Servín, Jos L. Martínez, E. Troyo-Diguez, and A. Ortega

The sweetpotato whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)] has become a high-risk insect pest in Mexico as well as in other countries, causing serious damage to several crops. Control of whitefly in Baja California Sur, ,Mexico, is usually done by intense insecticides applications, either alone or in mixtures of several kinds. The aim in this work was to determine its susceptibility to cypermethrin, endosulfan, methamidophos, and methyl-parathion. LC50 was obtained to identify the resistant and susceptible populations. A group of 20 whiteflies were introduced in a 20-ml scintillation vial coated in the inner surface with a known concentration of the insecticide. Mortality readings were obtained 3 h after exposing the insects to the residual activity at five concentrations. Five replications and control were run in different consecutive days for each bioassay. Results indicated that cypermethrin was the most toxic to B. tabaci and metamidophos the least. Data will be considered for further evaluations.

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James A. LaMondia, Richard S. Cowles, and Lorraine Los

Surveys mailed to strawberry growers in 1999 determined the state of nematode and root weevil awareness and practices for their management. Based on the survey response, 41 fields representative of various practices were selected for sampling throughout Connecticut. Adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) were found in only 3 fields, but notched leaves characteristic of their feeding were found in 40 fields, indicating a greater prevalence than perceived by growers. The percentage of notched leaves was positively correlated with years in production, suggesting that it took some time for the flightless weevils to migrate into and to increase to damaging numbers in fields. In fields older than 2 years, bifenthrin insecticide reduced leaf feeding compared to untreated fields or to fields treated with endosulfan or azinphos-methyl. Lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans) were detected in 31 fields and were present in about 58% of plants. When present, nematode numbers were greater in the margins of poor areas than in adjacent healthy plants (735 vs. 428 per g root, respectively). Lesion nematode numbers were also greater in replanted strawberries than rotated fields (760 vs. 304, respectively). Soil fumigation with methyl bromide, but not methyl dithiocarbamate or the combination of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin, reduced nematode densities in the following strawberry crop. Based on an economic model, nematodes reduced accumulated profit over 4 fruiting years by more than the percent loss of fruit yield. Beneficial insect pathogenic nematodes, predominantly Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae, were found in 75% of fields to which commercially obtained nematodes had been applied, and to 14% of the remaining fields. Presence of naturally occurring insect pathogenic nematodes in strawberry fields may control root weevil populations and lead to more years of productivity.

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concentrations would be required for the Cardy nitrate meter. PROMISING ALTERNATIVES TO ENDOSULFAN FOR BLUEBERRY MITE CONTROL The blueberry bud mite can cause significant damage to blueberry plantings. Endosulfan is the main chemical used for control, but this

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Richard L. Bell

pesticides such as pyrethroids ( Pree et al., 1990 ), azinphosmethyl, endosulfan, Perthane, and fenvalerate ( Follet et al., 1985 ), and biological controls are not always sufficiently effective ( Shaltiel and Coll, 2010 ). Host resistance and pear psylla

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Maren J. Mochizuki, Anusuya Rangarajan, Robin R. Bellinder, Thomas Björkman, and Harold M. van Es

five flea beetles per plant in 2004, and plants were sprayed once each with carbaryl (1.1 kg·ha −1 product), endosulfan (2.4 L·ha −1 product), permethrin (0.44 L·ha −1 product), and lamda-cyhalothrin (0.22 L·ha −1 product). Irrigation to

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J.L. Bi and N.C. Toscano

by the application of pyriproxifen in early spring provides the greatest control of the whiteflies on strawberry ( McKee and Zalom, 2007 ). Commonly used conventional insecticides against whiteflies on strawberry include endosulfan (chlorinated

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Togo Shinohara, Shinsuke Agehara, Kil Sun Yoo, and Daniel I. Leskovar

, Indianapolis, IN) and by hand weeding throughout the cropping seasons, if necessary. Control against cucumber beetle ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata ) during the vegetative stage was performed with a single foliar spray of 2.3 L·ha −1 of endosulfan (Endosulfan 3

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Cindy L. McKenzie and Joseph P. Albano

77 Picha, D.H. Hall, C.B. 1981 Influences of Potassium, cultivar, and season on tomato graywall and blotchy ripening J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 106 704 708 Powell, C.A. Stoffella, P.J. 1993 Influence of endosulfan sprays and aluminum mulch on

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Maren J. Mochizuki, Anusuya Rangarajan, Robin R. Bellinder, Harold M. van Es, and Thomas Björkman

applied once each for control. The threshold was reduced to five flea beetles per plant in 2004, and plants were sprayed once each with carbaryl (1.1 kg· ha −1 product), endosulfan (2.4 L· ha −1 product), permethrin (0.44 L· ha −1 product), and lamda

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Christopher A. Clark, Tara P. Smith, Donald M. Ferrin, and Arthur Q. Villordon

0.93 lb/acre + 4.5 mL/gal Latron buffer (Rohm and Haas, Philadelphia, PA), methyl parathion (PennCap M; United Phosphorus, King of Prussia, PA) at 0.5 lb/acre, and endosulfan (Thiodan 3EC; Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation) at 0.75 lb