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T. Casey Barickman, Dean A. Kopsell, and Carl E. Sams

example, Tang et al. (2005) demonstrated that naturally occurring LYCO doses of 100 to 300 mg·kg −1 inhibited cancerous prostrate cells in mice by more than 50%. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine dose–response effects of ABA

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Martin P.N. Gent

The persistence of effects of paclobutrazol or uniconazol on stem elongation was determined for several years after large-leaf Rhododendron and Kalmia latifolia were treated with a single-spray application of these triazol growth-regulator chemicals. Potted plants were treated in the second year from propagation, and transplanted into the field in the following spring. The elongation of stems was measured in the year of application and in the following 2 to 4 years. Treatments with a wide range of doses were applied in 1991, 1992, or 1995. For all except the most-dilute applications, stem elongation was retarded in the year following application. At the highest doses, stem growth was inhibited 2 years following application. The results could be explained by a model of growth regulator action that assumed stem elongation was inversely related to amount of growth regulator applied. The dose response coefficient for paclobutrazol was less than that for uniconazol. The dose that inhibited stem elongation one-half as much as a saturating dose was about 0.5 and 0.05 mg/plant, for paclobutrazol and uniconazol, respectively. The dose response coefficient decreased exponentially with time after application, with an exponential time constant of about 2/year. The model predicted a dose of growth regulator that inhibited 0.9 of stem elongation immediately after application would continue to inhibit 0.5 of stem elongation in the following year.

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Hye-Ji Kim, Richard Craig, and Kathleen M. Brown

Ethylene induces significant petal abscission in regal pelargonium (Pelargonium ×domesticum L.H. Bailey). Three genotypes, `Elegance Silver' and its progeny, 00-43-1 and 00-43-2, were developed with exceptional production and postproduction characteristics. These genotypes had significantly enhanced individual floret longevity and whole plant longevity, and displayed more than twice as many florets as commercial cultivars. Dose response analysis demonstrated that `Elegance Silver' has reduced ethylene responsiveness throughout floret development, shown by lower petal abscission than other cultivars over a range of ethylene concentrations. Floret longevity was strongly correlated with ethylene responsiveness as indicated by S50 (ethylene concentration for 50% petal abscission), but not with ethylene production. These results suggest that reduced ethylene responsiveness is an important determinant of enhanced postproduction performance in the superior genotypes of regal pelargonium.

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Michael A. Norman, Kim D. Patten, and Sarangamat Gurusiddaiah

Three indicator species [rye (Secale cereale L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)] and nonrooted cuttings of `Stevens' cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) vines were grown in pots to establish the dose response levels for a sand-applied phytotoxin(s) from a crude extract of Pseudomonas syringae (strain 3366) culture. At 114 ppm [milligrams phytotoxin(s)/kilograms sand], the material was noninhibitory, whereas 1140 ppm reduced root and shoot growth significantly in all four species. In subsequent experiments, a 10-ppm dose controlled corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.) and fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) seedlings, while 103 ppm reduced root or shoot growth of cuttings of the perennial weeds birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and silverleaf (Potentilla pacifica Howell). Root and shoot growth of partially rooted `McFarlin' cranberry vines was reduced at 103 and 563 ppm, respectively. The phytotoxin(s) could potentially control germinating annual weeds in newly established `Stevens' cranberry bogs.

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Jill C. Larimer and Dan Struve

In the spring of 1993, red oaks (Quercus rubra) and `Red Sunset' red maples (Acer rubrum cv. `Red Sunset') were propagated from seed and microcuttings, respectfully. From June through October, plants were fertilized twice daily with 1.4 liters of fertilizer solution at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm nitrogen from a 20-10-20 water soluble fertilizer. Destructive harvests were conducted six times at intervals from June through December. Leaf area, stem height, root length, root area, and dry weights of roots, stem, and leaves of harvested plants were measured and tissue nutrient concentration analyzed. Nutrient analyses of roots, stems, and leaves show seasonal distribution patterns of nitrogen. Dose- response patterns of fertilizer rate and growth were identified throughout the growing season.

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C.B. Watkins and J.F. Nock

The inhibitor of ethylene binding, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been applied to `Gala', `Cortland', `McIntosh', `Empire', `Delicious', `Jonagold', and `Law Rome' apples under air and/or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage conditions. 1-MCP gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 2 mL·L–1. Effects of 1-MCP were greater in CA than air storage. A dose response of internal ethylene concentrations and flesh firmness to 1-MCP was found in cultivars such as `McIntosh' and `Law Rome', whereas in others, such as `Delicious' and `Empire', ripening was generally prevented by all 1-MCP concentrations. We have further investigated the effects of 1-MCP on `McIntosh' by increasing rates of the chemical to 50 mL·L–1, and confirming that fruit of this cultivar respond poorly if fruit have entered the climacteric prior to 1-MCP application. Efficacy of 1-MCP is affected by cultivar and storage conditions, and that successful commercial utilization of the chemical will require understanding of these relationships.

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J.A. Sullivan, B.A. Hale, and D.P. Ormrod

Factorial experiments in two growing seasons in open-top field chambers with two or three O3 concentrations and two primocane-fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars were used to obtain dose-response relationships describing the effects of seasonal O3 exposure on raspberry plant vegetative and reproductive growth. At the lower concentration (0.12 μl·liter-1), the response to O3 was nonsignificant. However, at 0.24 μl·liter-1, `Heritage' showed a significant decline relative to the control in cane height, node count, cane diameter, and dry weight. These changes were accompanied by a 52% decrease in yield, caused mainly by a reduction in fruit count. In contrast, vegetative and yield characters of the `Redwing' were not affected by O3.

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Jeff B. Million, James E. Barrett, Terril A. Nell, and David G. Clark

Dendranthema×grandiflorum (Ramat.) were grown in either a peat-based or pine bark—based medium and drenched with growth retardants at a range of concentrations to generate dose : response curves. The effect of ancymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole on stem elongation was less in the pine bark—based than in the peat-based medium. Generally, the concentrations required to achieve the same response were 3- to 4-fold as high in the pine bark—based medium as in the peat-based medium. However, chlormequat was slightly more active in the pine bark—based medium than in the peat-based medium. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α—(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); (±)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-di methyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); (E)-(RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pent -l-en-3-ol (uniconazole); 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat).

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Sastry S. Jayanty, Mauricio Cañoles, and Randolph M. Beaudry

We studied the dose-response of `Redchief Delicious' apple [Malus sylvestris (L) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit to repeated (weekly) dosages of 0.0, 0.02, 0.1, and 1.0 μL·L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) by measuring fruit firmness and chlorophyll fluorescence throughout an extended storage period at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 °C. The rate of firmness loss for nontreated fruit increased with increasing temperature. 1-MCP applied at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 μL·L-1 slowed firmness loss. The 1-MCP dose-response curve for the rate of firmness loss was essentially the same for all five temperatures. A concentration of 1.0 μL·L-1 1-MCP prevented firmness loss at all temperatures for the duration of the study; however, after holding fruit for an additional 7 days at room temperature, the fruit stored at 10 °C softened with increasing storage duration, whereas fruit at stored at higher and lower temperatures did not. The influence of 1-MCP on chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo and Fm) was markedly affected by temperature; Fo increased during storage at higher storage temperatures and this increase was enhanced by 1-MCP. Conversely, Fm decreased during storage and the rate of decline was much greater at the higher storage temperatures; the rate of decline was reduced by 1-MCP, but only at the higher storage temperatures. Photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of nontreated fruit declined with time for all storage temperatures. Treatment with 0.1 and 1.0 μL·L-1 1-MCP only marginally reduced the rate of decline of photochemical efficiency. Sample loss due to decay increased with temperature, but was reduced by 1-MCP at all temperatures.

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James C. Sellmer, Craig R. Adkins, Ingram McCall, and Brian E. Whipker

Plant growth retardant (PGR) substrate drenches (in mg a.i per pot.) of ancymidol at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4; paclobutrazol at 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16; and uniconazole at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 (28,350 mg = 1.0 oz) were applied to pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana). Control of height growth during greenhouse forcing and the residual effects on plant growth in the landscape were evaluated. During greenhouse forcing, plant height exhibited a quadratic dose response to paclobutrazol and uniconazole, while ancymidol treated plants exhibited a linear response to increasing dose. All rates of uniconazole resulted in plant heights which were 56% to 75% shorter than the nontreated control, whereas paclobutrazol and ancymidol treatments resulted in 6% to 64% and 5% to 29% shorter plants, respectively. Severe height retardation was evident with {XgtequalX}2 mg uniconazole. When the plants were transplanted and grown in the landscape (24 weeks after the PGR application), all plants treated with ancymidol, paclobutrazol, and {XltequalX}0.5 mg uniconazole exhibited heights similar to the nontreated control, suggesting no residual effects of the PGR for these treatments. Only plants treated with uniconazole at {XgtequalX}1 mg remained shorter than the nontreated control in the landscape. These results demonstrate that plant growth regulators can be effectively and economically applied in the greenhouse production of pampas grass.