within a day or two after the fruit has been inoculated, and because the pathogen is strictly a wound invader, the harvest and subsequent packinghouse handling are particularly hazardous periods. Two other types of decay pathogens have been associated
S.M. Smith, J.W. Scott, J.A. Bartz, and S.A. Sargent
Lan-Yen Chang and Jeffrey K. Brecht
reactions change in the damaged tissues and trigger ethylene production, resulting in major postharvest losses, decay, and accelerated senescence, thus affecting strawberry quality and shelf life ( Ferreira et al., 2009 ; Wills and Kim, 1995 ). The severity
Nihad Alsmairat, Carolina Contreras, James Hancock, Pete Callow, and Randolph Beaudry
Blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruit benefit from elevated CO 2 levels, through its impact on suppressing fungal decay, but not from low O 2 levels ( Blasing, 1993 ; Ceponis and Cappellini, 1979 , 1983 , 1985 ; Schotsmans et al., 2007
Huating Dou and Fred G. Gmitter
treatments. Each treatment consisted of three replications with 45 fruit per replication. Fruit used were midsize, and weights per fruit varied between 190 and 210 g. Fruit were examined for chilling injury (CI) and decay after 3 months of storage at 40 °F
Araceli M. Vera-Guzman, Maria T. Lafuente, Emmanuel Aispuro-Hernandez, Irasema Vargas-Arispuro, and Miguel A. Martinez-Tellez
and biotic stresses. Important economic losses occur during postharvest handling and storage of this horticultural crop due to such stresses, which may end in fruit quality loss or in decay caused by pathogenic fungi. Peel blemishes or physiological
Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Javier Obando, Juan Antonio Martínez, Antonio Luis Alarcón, Iban Eduardo, Pere Arús, and Antonio José Monforte
Giambanco de Ena (1997) and previous experiences on commercial storage of melon hybrids to induce CI without exacerbating decay ( Valdenegro et al., 2005 ). After this time, fruit were examined for CI and other disorders, decay, loss of whole fruit finger
Elizabeth J. Mitcham
The produce industry faces a future with reduced access to postharvest fungicides. It has become increasingly important to reduce commodity susceptibility to decay and to develop non chemical methods for decay control. Heat therapy has been demonstrated to be effective for control of numerous decays and is currently practiced for control of anthracnose in mangoes and papayas and for decay control in oranges. The limitations to heat therapy include the often tine line between effectiveness and commodity injury and the lack of residual protection. Modified atmosphere has been used effectively for many years by the California strawberry and raspberry industry to allow cross-country shipment of a commodity on which no postharvest fungicides are used. It has been shown that CO2 concentrations of 15% and higher inhibit the growth of many fungi, including Botrytis cinerea, the main cause of strawberry decay. Many commodities cannot tolerate 15% CO2 for an extended period of time. However, the short term (1 to 3 weeks) tolerance has not been determined. With the loss of postharvest fungicides, we may find that many commodities could benefit from shipment under high CO2, as have strawberries. The combination of heat therapy and MA will also be discussed.
Penelope Perkins-Veazie and Julie Collins
Ultraviolet light treatment has been used successfully to reduce postharvest fungal decay in tomatoes, strawberries, peaches, and citrus, presumably through elevated spore death and/or increased phytoalexins. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of UVC light as a postharvest treatment for blueberries. `Blue Crop' and `Collins' fruit were harvested from a local grower in 2003 and 2004 and exposed to 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Joules of light (354 nm) supplied from 30-W germicidal bulbs. Fruit were held at 5 °C for 14 days. Application of 1000 to 2000 J UVC light reduced decay incidence by 10% compared to controls. The major decay organism was ripe rot (Collectotrichum gloeosporioides). Total phenolics, total anthocyanin, and ferric reducing absorbance power differed with variety, increased with storage, and were similar among light treatments. Firmness of non-decayed fruit was not affected by storage or treatment. Application of UVC light offers a means for reducing fungal decay in blueberries if applied at rates between 1000 and 4000 J.
Charles F. Forney
, and storage environment. Postharvest loss of cranberry fruit is primarily the result of physiological breakdown and decay ( Forney, 2003 ). Physiological breakdown is associated with overmature fruit ( Doughty et al., 1968 ), bruising ( Patterson et
P.L. Sholberg and A.P. Gaunce
Acetic acid (AA) as a vapor at low concentrations was effective in preventing fruit decay by postharvest fungi. Fumigation with 2.7 or 5.4 mg AA/liter in air at 2 and 20C reduced germination of Botrytis cinerea Pers. and Penicillium expansum Link conidia to zero after they had been dried on 0.5-cm square pieces of dialysis tubing. Decay of `Golden Delicious', `Red Delicious', and `Spartan' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) inoculated with 20 μl drops of conidia of B. cinerea (1.0 × 105 conidia/ml) or P. expansum (1.0 × 106 conidia/ml) was prevented by fumigating with 2.0 and 2.7 mg AA/liter, respectively. Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), and kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et R. Ferguson var. deliciosa] inoculated with B. cinerea or navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L.) inoculated with P. italicum Wehmer did not decay when fumigated with 2.0 mg AA/liter at 5C. AA fumigation at low temperatures (1 and 5C) with 2.0 or 4.0 mg AA/liter prevented decay of `Spartan' and `Red Delicious' apples and `Anjou' pears (Pyrus communis L.) inoculated with B. cinerea and P. expansum, respectively. `Spartan' apples immersed in a suspension of P. expansum conidia (1.4 × 105 conidia/ml) and fumigated with 2.7 mg AA/liter at 5C had an average of 0.7 lesions per fruit compared to 6.1 for nontreated fruit. Increasing the relative humidity from 17% to 98% increased the effectiveness of AA fumigation at 5 and 20C. At the concentrations used in our trials, AA had no apparent phytotoxic effects on the fruit. The potential for commercial fumigation with AA to control postharvest decay of fruit and vegetables appears promising.