PPF with a 12-h photoperiod. Ninety percent of the irradiance was provided by cool-white fluorescent tubes and 10% was from incandescent bulbs. There was no barrier between the light source and plants. Treatments were day/night temperatures being
Douglas A. Hopper and P. Allen Hammer
A central composite rotatable design was used to estimate quadratic equations describing the relationship of irradiance, as measured by photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and day (DT) and night (NT) temperatures to the growth and development of Rosa hybrida L. in controlled environments. Plants were subjected to 15 treatment combinations of the PPF, DT, and NT according to the coding of the design matrix. Day and night length were each 12 hours. Environmental factor ranges were chosen to include conditions representative of winter and spring commercial greenhouse production environments in the Midwestern United States. After an initial hard pinch, 11 plant growth characteristics were measured every 10 days and at flowering. Four plant characteristics were recorded to describe flower bud development. Response surface equations were displayed as three-dimensional plots, with DT and NT as the base axes and the plant character on the z-axis while PPF was held constant. Response surfaces illustrated the plant response to interactions of DT and NT, while comparisons between plots at different PPF showed the overall effect of PPF. Canonical analysis of all regression models revealed the stationary point and general shape of the response surface. All stationary points of the significant models were located outside the original design space, and all but one surface was a saddle shape. Both the plots and analysis showed greater stem diameter, as well as higher fresh and dry weights of stems, leaves, and flower buds to occur at flowering under combinations of low DT (≤ 17C) and low NT (≤ 14C). However, low DT and NT delayed both visible bud formation and development to flowering. Increased PPF increased overall flower stem quality by increasing stem diameter and the fresh and dry weights of all plant parts at flowering, as well as decreased time until visible bud formation and flowering. These results summarize measured development at flowering when the environment was kept constant throughout the entire plant growth cycle.
It not clear how a prolonged period of cool days and warm nights affect Phalaenopsis hybrids which take up CO2 mainly at night. The `Lava Glow' clone of the hybrid Doritaenopsis (Phal. Buddha's Treasure × Doritis pulcherrima) 15 cm in leaf span were subjected to day/night (12 h each daily) temperatures of 30/25, 25/30, 25/20, or 20/25 °C at 170 umol.m-2 .s-1 PPF. After nine months, plants under the higher average daily temperature (ADT) produced more leaves. Those grown at 30/25 °C had the largest leaf span and total length of the new leaves. Plants under 30/25, 25/30, 25/20, or 20/25 °C had 5.0, 4.7, 3.6, and 2.8 new leaves and 72, 61, 42, and 28 cm in total new leaf length, respectively. Cool days and warm nights resulted in smaller leaf span and reduced leaf growth, particularly at 20/25 than at 25/30 °C. Within a given ADT, cooler days resulted in shorter leaves. Leaves produced by plants at the lower ADT had a smaller length to width ratio and the more desirable oval shape. The most striking effect of 20/25 °C was that 14 out of 15 plants bloomed, whereas only 5 plants under 25/20 °C and none in the 30/25 or 25/30 °C treatment flowered. In a second experiment, 18-22 cm plants were subjected to 30/20, 20/30, 25/15, or 15/25 °C. After 29 weeks, similar results were obtained. All plants under 15/25 °C bloomed, whereas none in the other treatments produced flowers. Long-term exposure to 15/25 °C resulted in slow leaf production and undesirable small leaves. These results suggest that, with day temperatures in the 20-15 °C range, nights 10-5 °C warmer are not desirable for rapid vegetative growth. However, cool days and warm nights may be used to effectively induce the flowering process.
Madhoolika Agrawal, Donald T. Krizek, Shashi B. Agrawal, George F. Kramer, Edward H. Lee, Roman M. Mirecki, and Randy A. Rowland
Cucumis sativus L. (cvs. Poinsett and Ashley) plants were grown from seed in a growth chamber at a +10C (28/18) or a -10C (18/28) difference (DIF) between day temperature (DT) and night temperature (NT) on a 12-hour photoperiod for 24 days prior to ozone (O3) fumigation (3 hours at 0.5 umol·mol-1). Negative DIF, compared to +DIF, reduced plant height, node count, fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area in both cultivars. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll concentration, and variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv) were lower and O3 injury and polyamine concentrations were higher at -DIF than at +DIF. Ozone fumigation generally increased leaf concentration of polyamines and reduced Pn, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll fluorescence. `Poinsett' generally had a higher specific leaf mass and higher concentrations of chlorophyll a and polyamines than did `Ashley', but there was no cultivar difference in O3 injury, growth response, Pn, or stomatal conductance.
Richard J. McAvoy
Root-zone and plant canopy temperatures were continuously monitored as a poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex JSI.) crop was grown in the greenhouse under warm day/cool night [(+) DT-NT] or cool day/warm night [(-) DT-NT] temperature regimes. Day temperatures were imposed from 0900 to 1700 hr. Light levels photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and outside ambient air temperatures were also monitored. Temperature differences between the root-zone and plant canopy microenvironments were most extreme during the night-to-day and day-to-night temperature transition periods. The temperature difference between the plant canopy and the root zone following temperature transition periods had been previously identified as a critical factor affecting stem elongation. Overall poinsettia height was consistently shorter under the (-) DT-NT than under the (+) DT-NT environment.
Keith Yoder, Rongcai Yuan, Leon Combs, Ross Byers, Jim McFerson, and Tory Schmidt
: Effects of selected day/night temperatures on ‘Golden Delicious’ apple and ‘Manchurian’ and ‘Snowdrift’ crabapple pollen tube growth in ‘Gala’ pistils. Dormant 4-year-old ‘Gala’/M.9 trees growing in root bags were removed from the orchard in early Mar
John E. Erwin, Royal D. Heins, and Roar Moe
Abbreviations: ADT, average daily temperature; DIF, difference; DT/NT, day/night temperature; FR, far red; LD, long day; NI, night interruption; R, red; SD, short day. 1 Current address: Dept. of Horticultural Science, Univ. of Minnesota, 1970
Michael T. Deaton and David W. Williams
interaction on germination rate of seed grown under 20-year average day/night temperatures for Lexington, KY. Table 2. Germination rate expressed as time to 50% germination ( T 50 ) for 19 commercially available cultivars of seeded bermudagrass grown under 20
Will G. Neily, Peter R. Hicklenton, and David N. Kristie
Stem elongation rates (SERs) of `Giant Tetra' snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) and `Pompon' zinnia (Zinnia violacea Cav.) were determined in three temperature regimes in which differentials had been established between day and night temperature. The differentials [expressed as day temperature - night temperature (DIF)] were +5 DIF, 21 °C day/16 °C night; 0 DIF, 18.7 °C constant; and -5 DIF, 16.5 °C day/21.5 °C night; daily average 18.7 °C. In each regimes SERs were determined for three developmental stages—vegetative, visible bud, and preanthesis. SER was measured in controlled-environment chambers under 13-hour day/11-hour night photoperiods using linear voltage displacement transducers. Snapdragon and zinnia displayed rhythmic patterns of growth with strikingly different characteristics. SER for snapdragon consisted of a large peak in growth at the day/night (D/N) transition followed by a minimum in SER at the night/day (N/D) transition. The pattern did not change through development. In contrast the SER pattern changed significantly in zinnia. At the vegetative stage, diurnal SER was dominated by a large peak after the N/D transition [an early morning peak (EMP)]. At the later growth stages, the EMP remained visible, but the proportion of growth occurring at night increased. SER was rhythmic in both species for a limited period in continuous light and constant temperature. Zinnia displayed a stronger endogenous rhythm of SER than snapdragon. In both species, only day period growth was affected by DIF. The size of EMPs in both species increased under positive DIF and decreased under negative DIF, resulting in the overall DIF effect on plant height (a progressive increase in total diurnal elongation as DIF increased from -5 to +5). Internode lengths for snapdragon and zinnia were similar for plants grown to full flower at constant 17, 20, or 23 °C (0 DIF), indicating that DIF—not average daily, night, or day temperature—is a major determinant of extension growth.
Diane M. Camberato, Roberto G. Lopez, and Brian A. Krug
covered plants from 1600 to 0800 hr beginning on 1 Oct. at the PU location only. Plants at UNH received natural SD. The greenhouse day/night temperature set point (12 h/12 h) was 24/19 °C until 15 Oct. 2008 and 2009. Reduced temperature finishing (Expt