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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

responses of plants to environmental stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins are two major groups of plant hormones that play important roles in regulating plant responses to decreases in soil water availability ( Pospíšilová et al., 2000 ; Wilkinson

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J. Kevin Parris, Darren H. Touchell, Thomas G. Ranney, and Jeffrey Adelberg

( Kamenicka and Lanakova, 2000 ). Although several cytokinins have been used to induce shoot proliferation, BAP has been used most often for magnolia. For Magnolia × soulangeana, 1.2 μM BAP was shown to produce greater shoot proliferation than 2iP, kinetin

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Jinpeng Xing, Yan Xu, Jiang Tian, Thomas Gianfagna, and Bingru Huang

of leaves as chlorophyll and other cellular components (e.g., proteins and nucleic acids) are degraded during natural or stress-induced leaf aging. Cytokinins (CK) have been well known for delaying leaf senescence, and in some cases, reversing this

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Qiang Liu and Yiwei Jiang

) water (W); 2) 10 m m urea (N10); 3) 20 m m urea (N20); 4) 15 µ m cytokinin (transzeatin riboside, ZR) (CK); 5) 10 m m urea + 15 µ m cytokinin (N10CK); and 6) 20 m m urea + 15 µ m cytokinin (N20CK). Pots were sprayed with 10 mL of solutions at each

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Don C. Elfving and Dwayne B. Visser

; Miller, 1983 ). The interaction of endogenous auxins and cytokinins is thought to play a role in the control by apical dominance of lateral bud activity in the spring and during shoot development ( Sachs and Thimann, 1967 ; Theron et al., 1987 ; Wickson

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Shahzad M.A. Basra and Carol J. Lovatt

, cytokinins, gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA), and ethylene. Hence, the tools needed by the organic horticulture industry are known, but remain largely unavailable for use in commercial organic crop production. In addition, there are only a few

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Michael W. Bairu, Manoj G. Kulkarni, Renée A. Street, Rofhiwa B. Mulaudzi, and Johannes Van Staden

. Shoot multiplication. After bulking sufficient explants using the previously described procedure, experiments to investigate the effects of type and concentration of cytokinin on shoot multiplication and incidence of abnormality were designed

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Syuan-You Lin and Shinsuke Agehara

reduction in ‘Natchez’ blackberry, suggesting its potential negative side effects on floral development ( Lin and Agehara, 2020 ). Cytokinins act as an antagonist of GA during floral transition in apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) by upregulating the

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Shunzhao Sui, Jianghui Luo, Daofeng Liu, Jing Ma, Weiting Men, Lu Fan, Yu Bai, and Mingyang Li

). Furthermore, it is known that GA 3 acts as an antagonist to ABA or ethylene action, thereby delaying flower senescence ( Hunter et al., 2004a , 2004b ; Lü et al., 2014 ). It has also been noted that cytokinins delay petal senescence in both ethylene

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Eva Bacaicoa, Ángel María Zamarreño, Diane Leménager, Roberto Baigorri, and José María García-Mina

responses in the roots. Finally, Séguéla et al. (2008) reported the capacity of different types of cytokinins (CKs) to repress the expression of FRO2 , IRT1 , and FIT genes in arabidopsis [ Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.] by means of a mechanism