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Greg McCollum and Pilar Maul

to oranges, neither ethylene nor 1-MCP had significant effect on color change in ‘Oroblanco’ a pummelo × grapefruit hybrid ( Porat et al., 2001 ). Treatment with 1-MCP will also inhibit ethylene-induced abscission in citrus ( Sisler et al., 1999

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Jason D. Lattier and Ryan N. Contreras

winterhardiness, range of flower colors, and unique flower phenotypes, including single-flowered and double-flowered forms ( Contreras and Lattier, 2014 ). Breeders have noted the potential for improvement in althea due to their range of flower color and form and

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Michael J. Havey

The color of onion ( Allium cepa ) bulbs is one of the most important consumer traits, and bulb colors can be white, yellow, red, or chartreuse ( El-Shafie and Davis, 1967 ). White bulbs are conditioned by a dominant allele at the inhibitor ( I

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Cary Pirone, Jodie V. Johnson, J. Martin E. Quirke, Horacio A. Priestap, and David Lee

sepal tissue are stored in spindle-shaped chromoplasts ( Simpson et al., 1975 ). Petal color is enhanced by papillar processes in the epidermis, which refract light ( Kronsteadt and Walles, 1986 ). Fig. 1. Strelitzia reginae . ( A ) Inflorescence

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Audrey Darrigues, Jack Hall, Esther van der Knaap, David M. Francis, Nancy Dujmovic, and Simon Gray

characterization that is typically prone to bias. There are a number of computer image acquisition and analysis techniques for color in foods such as apple [ Malus × domestica Borkh ( Leemans et al., 2002 ; Li et al., 2002 )], banana [ Musa cavendishii L

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Luiz C. Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis

ethylene production were analyzed as described earlier ( Fan et al., 1999a ; Mattheis et al., 1998 ). Peel color was measured with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-200, Osaka, Japan) using CIE illuminant C and an 8-mm-diameter aperture. Color values a* and b

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Cristián Vela-Hinojosa, Héctor B. Escalona-Buendía, José A. Mendoza-Espinoza, Juan M. Villa-Hernández, Ricardo Lobato-Ortíz, Juan E. Rodríguez-Pérez, and Laura J. Pérez-Flores

m. Plants were grown in volcanic sand substrate and a Steiner nutrient solution ( Steiner, 1961 ) leading to plants with a single stem. Fruit were selected when ripe on the basis of a color chart developed specifically for each genotype according to

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Jessica G. Barb, Dennis J. Werner, and Robert J. Griesbach

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and betalains are three classes of pigments that produce flower color in plants. Of these pigments, flavonoids are the most abundant and responsible for a broad range of flower colors, including pale yellow, ivory, pink

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Ross C. Braun, Jack D. Fry, Megan M. Kennelly, Dale J. Bremer, and Jason J. Griffin

the first autumn frost and remain dormant until mid to late spring. Some turf managers in the transition zone may avoid the use of warm-season grasses because customers object to the brown color during dormancy. The warm-season grasses buffalograss and

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Tommy E. Thompson, L.J. Grauke, and E.F. Young Jr.

The Munsell Color System was used to define pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] kernel colors and color changes for 21 clones, 11 locations, and 4 storage methods for nuts collected over a 4-year period. Hue readings ranged from 10.0 (10 red) to 22.5 (2.5 yellow). Value readings ranged from 2.5 to 8.0, and chroma readings ranged from 1.0 to 8.0. A total of 91 color chips (individual combinations of hue, value, and chroma) were needed to describe kernel color variability. In 1987 and 1988, one color [15.0/5/4 (hue/value/chroma)] accounted for 3,979 of the 32,078 readings taken, and the 15 most common colors accounted for 80.7% of all the readings. The Munsell system of color determination was well suited for pecan color determinations. A simplified color rating system with only six color classes was developed for general use by the pecan industry. This system is also routinely used in our breeding and genetics program to define this very important quality trait in pecan.