Cocoa Production and Processing Technology. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. 350 p, 130 black-and-white illustrations. $125.96 hardback. ISBN 9781466598232. CRC Press. 2014. 350 pp. First, a few words about the author of this
Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez and Erick Smith
November to January in the northern coast and from May to November for the rest of the country. Annual rainfall varies from 2500 (mountainous northeast) to 500 mm (southwester valleys), with an average of 1346 mm. Although sugar, coffee, cocoa, and tobacco
A.J. Daymond, P. Hadley, R.C.R. Machado, and E. Ng
Cocoa Studies for technical help. This work was funded by M&M/Mars.
Cuauhtemoc Cervantes-Martinez, J. Steven Brown, Raymond J. Schnell, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Jemmy F. Takrama, and Juan C. Motamayor
We acknowledge the World Cocoa Foundation and CATIE for their financial support of the field work of this experiment, and also Mr. Jose Castillo and the field personnel of CATIE for their diligent recording of notations for this experiment. We also
Geok Yong Tan
1 Principal Plant Breeder. This paper is published with the permission of the PNG Cocoa and Coconut Research Institute. I thank Yawal and Bila Mazewin and all the assistant research officers involved for their dedicated work in crossing, planting
Abdoulaye Traore and Mark J. Guiltinan
supported by a grant to Mark Guiltinan from the American Cocoa Research Institute.
William J. Sciarappa* and Gary C. Pavllis
Weeds are especially problematic in highbush blueberry which has a long establishment period, shallow-fibrous roots, and poor competitive ability in obtaining water, nutrients and sunlight. Commercial approaches in certified organic blueberry fields compared horticultural management methods in two New Jersey sites. The trials utilized both new and established blueberry blocks having trickle or overhead irrigation. Commercial methods investigated included rotary cultivation, mowing, propane flaming, cover crops, landscape fabric, and various mulches. Mulch comparisons included pine bark mulch, hardwood mulch, coffee grinds, cocoa grinds, municipal leaf mulch, and composted tea leaves. 3' × 12' plots were replicated 4 times in 4 adjoining rows. Applications of 3-4 inches of these mulches within the crop row to a new planting of Duke highbush blueberry have provided a combined weed control level of ca. 95% without landscape fabric and ≈98% with landscape fabric during 2003. Walkway weed suppression in new plantings was achieved with the establishment of two types of fine leafed turf fescues and monthly mowings. Bare ground percentage decreased from 80% to <2% within one year's time as these fine fescues gradually out-competed annual weeds for space. These fescue cover crops increased ground coverage from 8% to >95% over the seven month growing season. Such varieties were selected because they have good germination, require little water, use limited nitrogen and can squeeze out weeds through allelopathy. Applied research studies indicate that several suitable methods can be utilized for effective weed management in organic highbush blueberry production systems.
Ricardo Goenaga, Heber Irizarry, and Brian Irish
( International Cocoa Germplasm Database, 2008 ) such as black pod disease ( Phytophthora spp.), witches broom ( Moniliophthora perniciosa ), and vascular streak dieback ( Oncobasidium theobromae ) and were of frequent use in breeding programs at CATIE
Nutrient concentrations in lettuce leaves are an important factor that affects lettuce quality, particularly the nutritional value of lettuce. When lettuce is grown hydroponically, tissue nutrient concentrations may be regulated through adjustments of the nutrients in the solution in which the lettuce is grown. However, when lettuce is grown in the field, the levels of tissue nutrients can be affected by many factors, such as soil conditions, fertilizer applications, and weather conditions. The objective of this study was to ascertain the variability of leaf and root tissue nutrients in loose-leaf lettuce grown in the field. An organic fertilizer that had an analysis of 4-6-6 as well as 3% Ca, 0.5% Mg, and 5% S derived from dehydrated manure, crab meal, cocoa meal, and other materials was applied at the time of planting and also side dressed after planting. There were significant differences in the concentrations of some elements between leaf tissues and root tissues. Leaf K, Ca, and Mg concentrations were significantly higher than those in the roots while leaf P concentration was lower than that in the roots. Leaf N concentration was similar to root N concentration. Micronutrients, such as Fe, MN Cu, Zn, and Mo, had lower concentrations in the leaves than in the roots. Leaf B concentration was similar to that in the roots. In addition, leaves accumulated lower concentrations of Al and Na than did the roots. No significant differences in the concentrations of these elements were observed between the fertilized plots and the unfertilized plots, which suggested that the field might have a sufficient fertility level and/or that the organic fertilizer might be slow in releasing its nutrients for the lettuce.
Juluri Rao*, John Moore, and Andrew Stewart
The EU Regional Draft Waste Management Plan (1999-2004) identified pig slurry (501,590 tonnes), poultry manure (217,110 tonnes) and spent mushroom compost (221,665 tonnes) as the main contributors to the 3.5 million tonnes of waste generated annually in Ireland. Current legislative restrictions prevent pig wastes from intensive pig units and horticultural wastes mainly spent compost produced in mushroom farms being disposed via landspreading due to pollution threat from nutrient run-off and the health hazards due to animal and human risk pathogen contents in wastes. Composting is a world-wide popular option for environmentally sustainable means of recycling farm wastes. In Ireland, profitable conversion of farm wastes such as pig slurry solids and spent mushroom compost has not yet been fully explored for their economic viability as `green' fertilizers. In this study, we produced pelleted formulations of the composted pig waste solids, (20%) blended with spent mushroom compost (26%), turkey litter (26%) cocoa husks (18%) and shredded paper (10%) to an environmentally safe, organic-based fertiliser resulting in N:P:K = 3:5:10, ideally suitable for use on amenity grassland such as golf course fairways and greens in Ireland, wherein spring and summer fertilizers with slow release of nutrients would aid an even growth of grass. We describe the composting methods used, processing technology developed and additional amendments such as dried blood or feather meal that were used during the pelletisation operation yielding specific N:P:K target ratios from the pig manure and spent compost wastes. We also report on the rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting phase and ascertained the pathogen-free status of the final pelletised fertilser products.