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Omer Hoke, Benjamin Campbell, Mark Brand, and Thao Hau

increased consumer demand ( Chaker, 2013 ). Such berries include aronia ( A. mitschurinii ), black currant ( R. nigrum ), bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.), elderberry ( Sambucus nigra L.), and goji berry ( Lycium barbarum L.). Given the health benefits

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Adam Dale

Fruit from black, red and white currants, and gooseberries (Ribes L.) were grown commercially in North America at the beginning of the 20th Century. However, when white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch.) was introduced into the new world, their cultivation was discontinued. About 825,000 t (908,000 tons) of Ribes fruit are produced worldwide, almost entirely in Europe. The fruit is high in vitamin C, and is used to produce juice, and many other products. Now a wide range of imported Ribes products is available particularly in Canada, and the pick-your-own (PYO) market is increasing. Two diseases, powdery mildew [Spaerotheca mors-uvae (Schwein.) Berk. & Curt.] and WPBR, are the major problems encountered by growers. Fortunately, many new cultivars are resistant to these two diseases. Commercial acreage of Ribes in North America is located where the growing day degrees above 5 °C (41 °F), and the annual chilling hours are at least 1200. Initially, the Ribes industry will develop as PYO and for farm markets. But for a large industry to develop, juice products will needed. Our costs of production figures indicate that about 850 Canadian dollars ($CDN) per 1.0 t (1.1 tons) of fruit will be required to break even.

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Moritz Knoche, Eckhard Grimm, and Henrik Jürgen Schlegel

canescens Bois) or from field-grown european plum (‘Doppelte Hauspflaume’ grafted on Prunus insitia L. ‘St. Julien A’), gooseberry (‘Invicta’), red currant (‘Rovada’), black currant (‘Titania’), and blueberry (‘Elliott’) at the Horticultural Research

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Kim E. Hummer, Joseph D. Postman, John Carter, and Stuart C. Gordon

During Dec. 1997 and Jan. 1998, the gooseberry mite, Cecidophyopsis grossulariae Collinge, was observed to infest 48 currant and gooseberry (Ribes L.) cultivars in a field plantation in Corvallis, Ore. The mite was observed on 29 black currant, (Ribes nigrum L.), two red currant [Ribes rubrum L. and R. sativum (Rchbch.) Syme], 12 gooseberry [R. uvacrispa L., R. oxyacanthoides var. setosum (Lindley) Sinnot], and three R. ×nidigrolaria Bauer cultivars and the hybrid R. nigrum × R. pauciflorum Turcz. ex Pojark. A range of mite infestation levels was observed, with some cultivars not being infested, some with light infestation, having 1 to 100 adult mites per bud, and some heavily infested, with more than 100 mites per bud. On lightly infested buds, the mites were inside bud and leaf scales; in heavily infested buds, mites were also observed on floral primordia. Scales of infested buds were often loose and appeared more open than noninfested ones. Mite distribution varied by branch within a plant. Black currant cultivars with the heaviest infestation of C. grossulariae were of Scandinavian, Russian, Scottish, and Canadian origin. The Russian black currant cultivar Tunnaja was the most heavily infested with more than 1000 mites per bud. Floral primordia were damaged in heavily infested buds.

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Danny L. Barney

During the 1800s and early 1900s, red and white currants (Ribes L. subgenus Ribes), black currants (Ribes subgenus Coreosma), and gooseberries (Ribes subgenus Grossularia) were grown commercially in the United States. Because Ribes serve as alternative hosts of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fischer) (WPBR), which was introduced from Europe, the federal government and many states either banned or severely restricted currant and gooseberry production beginning about 1933. The development of WPBR resistant pines and black currants (the most susceptible cultivated Ribes) renewed interest in commercial Ribes production. Climatic and soil conditions in selected areas of the U.S. inland northwest and intermountain west (INIW) are favorable for commercial currant and gooseberry production. Challenges to the establishment of a Ribes industry are labor, marketing, diseases, and pests. Careful site and cultivar selection are critical for successful commercial production. This article describes Ribes opportunities and risks associated with currant and gooseberry production in the INIW. The region includes Idaho and surrounding areas in Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

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Wes Messinger, Aaron Liston, and Kim Hummer

The Pacific Northwest boasts a remarkable diversity of wild currants and gooseberries (Ribes). Of nearly 150 species worldwide, 34 occur in the region. All but two infrageneric taxa are represented, including close relatives of the black currants, red currants, and cultivated gooseberries. High ecological diversity parallels this taxonomic diversity: a Ribes species occurs in nearly every terrestrial habitat, from sea level to above treeline, and from swamp to desert. This diversity is a valuable source of agronomically important genes for the plant breeder. In addition, wild Ribes represent a relatively unexplored source of ornamental shrubs. Habit and habitat of a number of species of interest are described and illustrated. An annotated list of species, subspecies, and varieties native to the Pacific Northwest is presented with discussion of taxonomic proximity to Cultivated varieties, range, natural habitat, and ornamental potential.

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Ed Mashburn

In North America for many years the commonly held solution to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer) (WPBR) was to eradicate all currants and gooseberries (Ribes L.). That approach was tried to no avail. Can currants and gooseberries be successfully grown in North America? You bet they can! Vast areas of the United States and Canada are ideal for Ribes production. Black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) are a processed fruit and production may compare to that of grain. Many of the areas that presently grow other berries could easily grow Ribes. The main barriers for production in North America are state restrictions and the availability of up-to-date information and data for growers, processors, legislators and the consuming public. I suggest that this conference and the people herein form that task group and initiate the cooperative dialogue and set forth a process to approach the WPBR problem in a holistic manner.

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Kim E. Hummer and Deric D. Picton

Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots and leaves of black currants (Ribes nigrum) and red currants (R. rubrum) in the Pacific northwestern U.S. Environmentally sound control measures are being sought as alternatives to sulfur or demethylation-inhibiting fungicides. This study examined the effect of mineral oil spray on powdery mildew infection in susceptible black and red currants. Mineral oil at 8 mL·L-1(8000 ppm) was applied to plants until runoff at 0-, 2-, and 4-week intervals from April through June in 1999 and 2000 on eight currant cultivars growing in Corvallis, Ore. Shoot and leaf surfaces were rated for powdery mildew incidence in early July both years. Oil applications significantly reduced mildew severity in vegetative growth as compared with that of the unsprayed control. The disease control from 2-week interval and 4-week interval oil applications was not significantly different.

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Shiow Y. Wana, John L. Maas, and Gene J. Galletta

Ellagic acid, a putative anticarcinogenic compound, was detected in plants of mayhaw (Crataegus spp.), false strawberry (Duchesnea indica), strawberry (Fragaria spp.), black currant (Ribes nigrum), thornless blackberry (Rubus subgenus Eubatus), red raspberry (Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Large differences in ellagic acid contents have been found among species and cultivars and also among tissues. Ellagic acid content in plant tissues is also affected by environmental factors and shows a seasonal variation in strawberry leaves. A decrease in ellagic acid content of leaves was associated with seasonal decreases in photoperiod and temperature from September to December. Ellagic acid content in the leaves of red raspberry infected with orange rust showed more than a 3-fold increase compared to healthy leaves.

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D.R. Bergdahl and H.B. Teillon

White pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fischer) has been present in Vermont and other northeastern states since the early 1900s. The fungus is commonly observed on currants and gooseberries (Ribes L.) every year, but incidence varies on eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Our general impression has been that Vermont has had a relatively low level of infection on eastern white pines; however, we recently found rust incidence in Christmas tree plantings in northern Vermont to range from 10 to 42% (average 20%) based on 721 trees surveyed. Also, in pole-sized stands in southern Vermont, incidence ranged from 12 to 46% (average 32%) and 76% of these trees had main stem infections. In the southern survey, 98% of wild ribes plants had varied amounts of both urediniospores and teliospores. These preliminary survey data suggest that incidence of WPBR may be more significant than previously thought and therefore, additional survey work is needed. We screened cultivars of Ribes for susceptibility to WPBR. Eighteen cultivars were inoculated in the field with a mass collection of aeciospores of C. ribicola. The percentages of leaf area infected ranged from 0 to 49 for the urediniospore stage and from 0 to 55 for teliospores. The gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa L.) `Welcome' had the highest percentage of leaf area with urediniospores, while black currants (R. nigrum L.) `Coronet,' `Consort,' and `Crusader' had no visible infection. Presently, Vermont has no WPBR regulations. However, previous federal laws did restrict black currant cultivation. Little is known about the genetic diversity of WPBR or its potential for change. Caution must be used when considering any cultivation of Ribes for the purpose of producing fruit because our valued white pine resources could be negatively impacted.