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Gerardo Lopez, M. Hossein Behboudian, Gemma Echeverria, Joan Girona, and Jordi Marsal

sessions of 90 min each. Training sessions were conducted to instruct the judges on measuring the perception of the following attributes: sweetness, sourness, flavor intensity, juiciness, firmness, crispness, ease of breakdown, and fibrousness. Terms of

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Edward J. Boza, Juan Carlos Motamayor, Freddy M. Amores, Sergio Cedeño-Amador, Cecile L. Tondo, Donald S. Livingstone III, Raymond J. Schnell, and Osman A. Gutiérrez

, particularly for fine-flavored cacao recognized for its unique flavor known as “arriba.” Major production has been from cacao of the Nacional genetic group, which is renowned for its fine flavor and aroma. Traditional Nacional cultivars, belonging to a distinct

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R. Karina Gallardo, Qi Zhang, Michael Dossett, James J. Polashock, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Nicholi Vorsa, Patrick P. Edger, Hamid Ashrafi, Ebrahiem Babiker, Chad E. Finn, and Massimo Iorizzo

, crispness, firmness, flavor, nutritional benefit, shape/appearance, shelf life, size, small dry stem scar, sweetness, and “other fruit quality traits.” Disease resistance traits included the following: algal stem blotch ( Cephaleuros spp.), Alternaria fruit

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Xavier Vallverdu, Joan Girona, Gemma Echeverria, Jordi Marsal, M. Hossein Behboudian, and Gerardo Lopez

the intensity of the following attributes on 150-mm unstructured line scales: sweetness, sourness, intensity of flavor, juiciness (the amount of juice released by the sample when chewing with the back teeth), firmness (the force required to compress

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Robert E. Paull, Gail Uruu, and Nancy Jung Chen

The sugar-to-acid ratio of pineapple ( Ananas comosus L.) contributes toward giving the fruit its flavor ( Paull and Chen, 2003 ). This ratio is an important indicator of both commercial and organoleptic ripeness and is useful in determining a

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Susan L. Barkley, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, Suzanne D. Johanningsmeier, Katherine M. Jennings, Van-Den Truong, and David W. Monks

number. Participants were asked to evaluate overall, color, texture, and flavor liking on a 9-point hedonic scale, where 9 was anchored with the term, “like extremely” and 1 was anchored with the term, “dislike extremely.” Participants were also asked to

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Yan-Chang Wang, Lei Zhang, Yu-Ping Man, Zuo-Zhou Li, and Rui Qin

). However, their comprehensive characteristics (especially the red coloration, fruit size, sweetness, or flavor) did not meet ‘Hongyang’ standards. However, as the predominant cultivar in red-fleshed kiwifruit production (≈5000 ha in China), besides its

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Natalie Bumgarner, Sheri Dorn, Esther McGinnis, Pam Bennett, Ellen Bauske, Sarada Krishnan, and Lucy Bradley

commercial producers’ needs ( Morris and Sands, 2006 ; Sands et al., 2009 ). Before the 21st century, few vegetable breeding programs prioritized traits desired by consumers (such as enhanced nutrition or flavor), focusing instead on producer-valued traits

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Wesley Gartner, Paul C. Bethke, Theodore J. Kisha, and James Nienhuis

accumulation ( Sung et al., 1994 ). Soluble sugar concentrations, including glucose, fructose, and sucrose, can improve the consumer perception of taste and flavor of snap and dry beans either directly or through enhancement of other organic compounds

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Nancy J. Chen, Marisa M. Wall, Robert E. Paull, and Peter A. Follett

greenish yellow flesh of a buttery texture ( Yee, 1957 ). The ‘Sharwil’ is often considered a gourmet avocado because it has a rich, nutty flavor. Determining harvest maturity for ‘Sharwil’ fruit can be difficult. If harvested immature, the fruit typically