The southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium, mostly corymbosum) cultivars Jubilee, Pearl River, and Magnolia and the rabbiteye cultivars Climax and Premier were stored for 4 weeks at 1-2 °C. Berries were held in pint “clam shell” plastic retail units and were evaluated weekly for physical and compositional quality. As groups, the rabbiteyes were higher in SSC, SSC/TA, glucose and fructose, anthocyanins, and malic, quinic, and succinic acids. `Jubilee' was the southern highbush and `Climax' the rabbiteye least affected by the storage. `Pearl River' and `Magnolia' were less firm and more shriveled than the other cultivars. `Magnolia' had the highest incidence of decay; decay was slight overall.
Gregory A. Lang and Jiaxun Tao
The postharvest performance of early ripening southern highbush blueberries `Sharpblue' and `Gulfcoast' was evaluated under storage and simulated retail conditions. In general, `Gulfcoast' fruit were 28% heavier than those of `Sharpblue', which had a higher percent soluble solids concentration (SSC) and lower titratable acidity (TA). Quality loss, as indexed by fresh weight, percent decayed fruit, or changes in SSC, pH, or TA, was insignificant in first-harvest fruit of either cultivar when kept in storage (2C) for up to 7 days. Transfer of fruit stored at 2C for 3 days to simulated retail conditions at 21C for 4 days significantly increased fresh weight loss and decay, but not beyond levels deemed unmarketable. Second-harvest fruit were smaller than first-harvest fruit, and those of `Sharpblue' fruit were more prone to decay. However, storage quality of both cultivars was acceptable through 11 days at 2C. Retail quality, as influenced by decay incidence, was acceptable after 3 days at 2C plus 4 days at 21C, but not after 3 days at 2C plus 8 days at 21C. Overall, fruits of these early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivars performed well under postharvest conditions and are suitable for expanding production of premium fresh blueberries by growers in the Gulf coastal plains.
Abdul Hakim, Errki Kaukovirta, Eija Pehu, and Irma Voipio
Mature green tomatoes (cv. Vibelco) were stored at 2°C for 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Intermittent warming treatments for 12, 24, and 36 hours at 24°C were applied at the end of every week. Control Fruit were held continuously at 2°C. All fruit were subjected to poststorage ripening at 24°C for 7 days. Fruit decay, chlorophyll and lycopene content, fruit firmness, pH, TSS and TA were detected after storage or 7 days after transfer to 24°C. Results were compared between control and intermittently warmed fruit when stored at 2°C for 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Compared to fruit kept continuously at 2°C, intermittent warming at 24°C for 12, 24, and 36 hours reduced decay, increased chlorophyll disappearance, lycopene synthesis, and fruit firmness, enhanced pH and TSS, and declined TA. Fruit intermittently warmed for 36 hours/week showed the least decay, higher chlorophyll disappearance, and lycopene synthesis; retention of fruit firmness, pH, and TSS; and lower TA than fruit intermittently warmed for 12 and 24 hours/week. Decay percentage, lycopene content, pH, and TSS were increased from 2 to 4 weeks, but chlorophyll content, fruit firmness, and TA were declined.
W.R. Miller, R.E. McDonald, and T.E. Cracker
Blueberry cultivars Sharpblue (mainly Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and Climax (V. ashei L.) were band-harvested on three occasions and manually packaged into 0.275 liter fiber-pulp cups or automatically packaged in vented polystyrene cups. Berries were evaluated after 1,2, or 3 weeks of storage at 1C and after 2 additional days of storage at 16C, a time frame that simulated a merchandising period. Weight loss of fruit packaged in polystyrene cups was <1% during 3 weeks of storage at 1C, whereas weight loss of berries packaged in fiber-pulp cups was ≈5.0% after similar storage. `Sharpblue' berries were softer at harvest and after each storage duration than `Climax' berries. Decay increased to ≈7% for `Climax' and 28% for `Sharpblue' after 3 weeks of storage at 1C. Package type did not affect decay incidence after 3 weeks of storage; but after 2 additional days at 16C, decay incidence was slightly higher for berries packaged in polystyrene compared with those packaged in fiber-pulp cups. `Sharpblue' should be packaged only in fiber-pulp cups and marketed quickly after harvest to avoid excessive decay.
Mature green tomatoes (cv. Vibelco) were immersed in water at 42°C for 90 min or in water (42°C for 90 min) containing 2% calcium chloride prior to storage at 2 and 15°C for 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Control fruits were immersed in 20°C water for 90 min. All fruits were subject to poststorage ripening at 20°C for 6 days. Weight loss, chlorophyll and lycopene content, pH, TSS, TA, firmness, and electrolyte leakage were determined after storage or 6 days after storage. Control fruits showed lower weight loss, less lycopene content, pH, TSS, firmer but more chlorophyll content, pitting, decay, TA, and electrolyte leakage than treated fruits. Compared to hot water-treated fruits, lower pitting, decay, less chlorophyll content, and electrolyte leakage while more lycopene content, TA, and firmness were detected in combine hot water- and calcium-treated fruits. Extended storage time resulted in higher pitting and decay. Fruits stored at chilling temperature (2°C) showed higher chilling susceptibility to pitting and decay than those were stored at nonchilling temperature (15°C).
Abdul Hakim, Errki Kaukovirta, Eija Pehu, and Irma Voipio
Hot water treatment at 38, 42, 46, 50, and 54 °C for 30 60 and 90 minutes were applied to mature green tomatoes before storing at 2°C for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Control fruit were treated at 20°C water. After storage all fruit were held at 20°C for 7 days. Control fruit showed lower weight loss, lycopene content, pH, and TSS but higher decay, chlorophyll content, TA, and more Firmness than hot-water-treated fruit. Weight loss, lycopene content, pH, and TSS were progressively increased with increased water temperature from 38 to 54°C, while chlorophyll content, TA and fruit firmness were declined. Among hot-water-treated fruit, least decay were detected in fruit treated at 46°C water 6 weeks stored fruit showed higher weight loss, more decay, lower chlorophyll and lycopene content, TSS, TA, less firmer and higher pH than those fruit stored for 2 or 4 weeks. Increased immersion time from 30 to 90 minutes resulted higher weight loss, lower decay, chlorophyll content, TA, and less firm, but higher lycopene content, TSS, and pH.
Lori D. Calhoun, William S. Conway, and Carl E. Sams
Due to the declining availability of fungicides for use in commercial tomato production, there is a need to investigate alternative disease control methods. Several theories of disease resistance are associated with an increase in plant tissue calcium content, which has increased resistance of tomato seedlings to bacterial wilt and other diseases. Three tomato cultivars (`Mountain Supreme', `Sunrise', and `Celebrity') were grown in a greenhouse hydroponic system to study the role of Ca in reducing decay of fruit by Botrytis cinerea. Calcium treatments of 20, 200, or 1000 ppm were applied in a modified Hoagland's solution. A 3 × 3 factorial randomized complete-block design was used. Mature whole leaves were collected from immediately below the third flower clusters and the calcium content analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometry. Harvested fruit were inoculated with a 5 × 105 spore/ml conidial suspension of B. cinerea and the decay lesion diameter measured once daily for 7 days. This was repeated for 8 consecutive weeks. Leaf Ca content significantly increased (P < 0.01) as the Ca treatments increased from low to medium (310%) and from medium to high (150%). The medium and high Ca treatments significantly reduced the area of decay caused by gray mold rot (P < 0.01). There were no differences in Ca content or decay among cultivars, and the Ca × cultivar interaction was not significant. It appears that leaf Ca content is negatively associated with resistance of greenhouse-grown tomatoes to gray mold rot, strengthening the hypothesized role of calcium in promoting disease resistance.
Konstantinos G. Batziakas, Shehbaz Singh, Kanwal Ayub, Qing Kang, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Cary L. Rivard, and Eleni D. Pliakoni
., 2013 ). We believe that the O 2 reduction during the latter part of the storage period was related to the appearance of decay in the MAP bags, which was the limiting factor at 13 °C, and was caused by water condensation. Most of the polymeric films
P. Perkins-Veazie, J.K. Collins, and J.R. Clark
The storage life of blackberry fruit is generally `2 to 3 days when stored at 1C. This study was done to determine the maximum storage life among erect blackberry cultivars, and to determine storage temperature effects on storage life. Shiny black fruit from `Navaho', `Arapaho', and `Shawnee' cultivars were stored at 2C, 5C, or 10C for 20, 14, and 7 days, respectively. At any temperature. only 10-20% of `Navaho' fruit had decay, while 30-50% of `Arapaho' and 40-70% of `Shawnee' fruit had decay. Weight loss was 3-5% depending on temperature and was not different among cultivars. Soluble solids concentration did not change during storage but titratable acidity decreased in all cultivars for fruit held at all temperatures. Anthocyanin content increased during storage in `Shawnee' and `Navaho' but not in `Arapaho' fruit. Results indicate that `Navaho' fruit have a longer shelflife than other blackberry cultivars.
K.A. Sanford, P.D. Lidster, K.B. McRae, E.D. Jackson, R.A. Lawrence, R. Stark, and R.K. Prange
Postharvest response of wild lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. and V. myrtilloides Michx.) to mechanical damage and storage temperature was studied during 2 years. Fruit weight loss and the incidence of shriveled or split berries were major components that contributed to the loss of marketable yield resulting from mechanical damage and storage temperature. Decay of berries resulted in only 1% to 2% of the total marketable fruit loss. In general, the major quality attributes (firmness, microbial growth, hue, bloom, split, and unblemished berries) deteriorated with increasing damage levels and increasing storage temperature without significant interaction. Temperature had consistent effects in both years on moisture content, soluble solids concentration, titratable acids, weight loss, shriveled and decayed berries, Hunter L values, and anthocyanin leakage, while damage level had inconsistent or no significant effect.