. Different letters represent treatments that are statistically different within each plantation (one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey honestly significant difference, P < 0.05). On the other hand, tissue decay was detected in many of the
Yuval Cohen, Stanley Freeman, Aida Zveibil, Rachel Ben Zvi, Yaakov Nakache, Shimon Biton, and Victoria Soroker
Salah E. Youssef and Elizabeth J. Mitcham
Peaches and apricots were obtained at harvest. One-half were inoculated with the brown rot organism (Monilinia fructicola) and incubated overnight before immersion in 52C water for 2.5 and 2 minutes, respectively. Fruit were placed in storage at SC in air, 2% O2 and 15% CO2, or 17% O2 and 15% CO2 for 5 or 15 days before ripening at 20C. For peach, controlled atmosphere (CA) had no influence on decay while hot water significantly reduced decay incidence and severity. For apricot, after 15 days cold storage, both hot water and controlled atmosphere storage reduced decay incidence and severity. CA with 2% O2 and 15% CO2 controlled decay better than 17% O2 and 15% CO2. Growth and sporulation of Monilinia fructicola in air and CA was also evaluated in vitro. The combination of heat and CA controlled decay better than either treatment alone. The hot water treatment resulted in minor surface injury on peaches while apricots were not injured. Fruit were evaluated after storage for firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity. Accumulation of ethanol and acetaldehyde as a result of CA storage was monitored.
Decay caused by fungal pathogens accounts for significant postharvest losses. Although the application of synthetic fungicides can reduce postharvest decay, increasing public concern over using fungicides as well as the resistance that develops to them indicate that alternative means of decay control are needed. Freedom from disease before harvest is the norm rather than the exception. Numerous defense mechanisms, both preformed and inducible, are involved in plant resistance to fungal pathogens. Understanding how natural defense mechanisms are regulated and how to maintain them in harvested products may provide the basis for new strategies to reduce postharvest losses caused by pathogens. Host–pathogen interactions have been well studied in growing plants but much less extensively in harvested organs. The interaction between host and pathogen is dynamic; changes in both organisms are required for disease development. Following harvest, the incidence of decay increases indicating that changes in the host render it more susceptible to pathogen development. Recent studies by plant physiologists and pathologists have contributed to our understanding of changes in harvested tissues that render them less resistant to decay as well as changes in the host that are induced in response to fungal infection.
Christopher C. Gunter and Jiwan P. Palta
Tuber tissue calcium has been linked to several potato quality characteristics, including internal defects and the susceptibility of tubers to decay by soft rotting Erwinia species. We were particularly interested in studying the relationship between supplemental calcium fertilization during the seed tuber production cycle to raise the seed piece calcium concentration and the impact on crop performance the following season. The role of seed tuber tissue calcium level on seed piece decay, growth, development, and performance of the plant was evaluated for cultivars Russet Burbank, Dark Red Norland, Atlantic, Superior, and Snowden. This study was performed over four growing seasons. Seed tubers were raised with varying calcium and the following season, individual tubers (over 3,000 total for 4 years of study) were sampled for calcium and hand planted in the field. They were evaluated for seed piece decay and total tuber yield during the growing season. Seed tubers raised with supplemental calcium resulted in significantly higher mean calcium content than the control tubers. In general, calcium-raised seed tubers tended to produce a more vigorous main sprout and higher tuber yield. We also found that there are significant differences among these cultivars for the characteristics measured. Consistently, in all three years, `Atlantic' responded to test conditions with the lowest decay values, and `Dark Red Norland' consistently showed the highest decay values. This suggests that there may be a genetic component involved in these two responses and these genotypic differences could be exploited to improve cultivated potatoes.
C.L. Barden, G.M. Greene II, L.A. Hull, and K.D. Hickey
As public pressure increases to reduce the use of agricultural chemicals, the effects of lower chemical dosages in the orchard on fruit storability must be determined. Based on both artificial and natural damage, minor tufted apple bud moth (TABM) injury (<10 mm aggregate diameter) did not cause significant loss during controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage. However, damage in excess of 10 mm often caused significant weight loss and decay. Damage occurring closer to harvest caused more loss of quality than earlier damage (i.e., during July and early August). Forty percent of apples damaged 1 week before harvest decayed during storage. Several orchard fungicide spray programs were studied, and in 1993–94, all of the tested programs adequately controlled both fruit blotches and rots, and few storage rots developed. These diseases were light in 1993 due to low rainfall during the summer months. Development of the summer diseases were somewhat higher in 1994, but similar fungicide programs provided adequate control of the complex at harvest. Apples inoculated with P. expansum (punctured with a nail) decayed less when stored in 3% CO2 than in 0% CO2 (at both 1% or 2.4% O2). Decay of `Golden Delicious' caused by P. expansum inoculation increased with later harvest (twice as much decay in fruit harvested 14 Oct. than in fruit harvested 23 Sept.–7 Oct.).
Q. Zhang, W. Dai, H. Yang, W. Jia, X. Ning, and J. Li. 2019. Calcium chloride and 1-methylcyclopropene treatments delay postharvest and reduce decay of ‘New Queen’ melon. HortScience 54(7): 1223–1229 . 2019. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI13997
Steven McArtney, Michael Parker, John Obermiller, and Tom Hoyt
storage temperatures. The 4-week storage delay between treatment and moving the fruit to the different temperatures may have resulted in the higher levels of decay in 2009 compared with 2010. There was a significant interaction between 1-MCP treatment and
Jiwon Jeong, James Lee, and Donald J. Huber
. Full-slip fruit were treated with 1-MCP (1.0 μL·L −1 ) for 24 h at 10 °C, stored at 10 °C for 5 d, and then transferred to 20 °C. Fruit integrity was assessed on the basis of mesocarp firmness during storage at 20 °C. Decay incidence and other visible
Aaron Heinrich, Richard Smith, and Michael Cahn
nitrate concentration increased at all depths presumably because of transport of nitrate that was released by decaying residues (roots and aboveground biomass) into the profile ( Fig. 4C ). By the time the trial was ended, soil nitrate concentrations for
John R. Stommel, Robert W. Goth, and Kathleen G. Haynes
Bacterial soft rot of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), caused by Erwinia spp., is a destructive postharvest market disease of this crop. Control is presently limited to chemical treatments. Methods of inoculating pepper fruit were evaluated to develop a reliable technique for soft rot resistance screening. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) was isolated from partially decayed field grown pepper fruit at Beltsville, MD. Fruit were inoculated with suspensions of Eca via: (a) abrasion with Carborundum, (b) hypodermic puncture, or (c) non-wounded tissue. Inoculated fruit were held under high humidity at 21-23C for two to three days prior to scoring. Degree of soft rot decay was determined via fruit weight loss from two replicates of the experiment over the course of the growing season. Significant differences were not evident among varieties or experiment dates for weight loss due to tissue decay. Hypodermic puncture inoculation was superior to other methods for inducing fruit rot.