‘Honeycrisp’ fruits can adopt two basic patterns: “blushed” or “striped” ( Fig. 1 ). For the purposes of this study, fruits are blushed when the surface is partly covered with a red tinge that is not broken and striped when the color is in alternating lines in
Adriana Telias, Emily Hoover, and Diego Rother
Yi hu Dong, Deepali Mitra, Arend Kootstra, Carolyn Lister, and Jane Lancaster
The red color of Royal Gala apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) skin increased in intensity following irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) and white light. The enhanced red apple color was due to an increase in anthocyanin concentration and the increase was dose dependent. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the composition of flavonoids in UV treated and natural red colored apple skins was similar. The red apple skin color further increased after storage at 4C in the dark. During the course of irradiation the enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) increased 10-to 20-fold. Northern analysis showed an increase in PAL transcripts during the irradiation treatment, suggesting that the increase in PAL enzymatic activity was due to de novo synthesis of the enzyme in apple skin cells.
Rosanna Freyre and Robert J. Griesbach
Plants of Anagallis monelli in their native habitat or in cultivation have either blue or orange flowers. Clonally propagated cultivars, seed obtained from commercial sources and the resulting plants were grown in a greenhouse at the University of New Hampshire. F2 progeny obtained from hybridization between blue- and orange-flowered plants had blue, orange or red flowers. There were no significant differences in petal pH of orange-, blue-, and red-flowered plants that could explain the differences in flower color. Anthocyanidins were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated that blue color was due to malvidin, orange to pelargonidin, and red to delphinidin. Based on our segregation data, we propose a three-gene model to explain flower color inheritance in this species.
Bridget Behe, Robert Nelson, Susan Barton, Charles Hall, Charles D. Safley, and Steven Turner
Researchers often investigate consumer preferences by examining variables consecutively, rather than simultaneously. Conjoint analysis facilitates simultaneous investigation of multiple variables. Cluster analysis facilitates development of actionable market segments. Our objective was to identify relative importance and consumer preferences for flower color, leaf variegation, and price of geraniums (Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bail.) and to identify several actionable market segments. We also evaluated the desirability of a hypothetical blue geranium. Photographic images were digitized and manipulated to produce plants similar in flower area, but varying in flower color (red, lavender, pink, white, and blue), leaf variegation (plain green, dark green zone, and white zone), and price ($1.39 to $2.79). Conjoint analysis revealed that flower color was the primary consideration in the purchase decision, followed by leaf variegation and price. A cluster analysis that excluded blue geraniums yielded four actionable consumer segments. When preferences for the blue geranium were included, six consumer segments were identified.
Mustafa Özgen, Karim M. Farag, Senay Ozgen, and Jiwan P. Palta
Highly colored cranberries are desired for both fresh and juice markets. Berries accumulate more color when allowed to stay on the vines longer. However, early fall frosts often force growers to harvest before the fruit has reached its optimal color. This is especially true for the berries under the canopy. No product is currently available for grower to accelerate the color development in cranberries. Result from recent studies suggests that a natural lipid, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), can accelerate color production in fruit and, at the same time, promote shelf life. LPE is a natural lipid and is commercially derived from egg and soy lecithin. The influence of LPE on anthocyanin accumulation and storage quality of cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. `Stevens') was studied. Cranberry plants were sprayed with LPE at about 4 weeks before commercial harvest at multiple locations. Experiments were conducted in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Fruit samples were taken at 2 and 4 weeks after spray application to determine the changes in the fruit color. Plots were wet harvested using a standard commercial method and stored in a commercial cold storage facility. Marketable fruit were evaluated at 1 and 2 months after cold storage to determine effect of LPE on shelf life of cranberries. In general, a preharvest application of LPE resulted in a 9% to 27% increase in fruit anthocyanin concentration compared to the control. LPE treatments also resulted in 8% to 12% increase in marketable fruit compared to the control following cold storage. Influence of LPE on fruit quality was more apparent after 1 month of storage. These results are consistent with the observed effects of LPE on tomatoes. Interestingly ethanol application also enhanced storage quality. Our results suggest that a preharvest application of LPE may have the potential to enhance color and prolong shelf life of cranberry fruit.
Robert J. Griesbach
Flower color results from the interaction of a pigment (anthocyanin) with a co-pigment (usually a flavonone or flavonol) at a specific pH. At more alkaline pHs (pH 5 to 6), an anthocyanin/co-pigment complex is blue; while at more acidic pHs (pH 3-4), the same anthocyanin/copigment complex is red. In Phalaenopsis pulcherrima, a mutation in pH resulted in a bluer flower color. The difference in pH between the normal-colored magenta flowers (pH 5.8) and mutant violet flowers (pH 5.5) was due to a single co-dominantly inherited gene.
Yong Zhang, Chunxia Fu, Yujing Yan, Yan’an Wang, Ming Li, Meixiang Chen, Jianping Qian, Xinting Yang, and Shuhan Cheng
measurements. Samples of 10 fruit per replicate were assessed for quality after washed under running distilled water and then air-dried. First, we determined length/diameter (L/D) ratio, average fruit weight, and skin color. We measured fruit length and
Lidia Lozano, Ignasi Iglesias, Diego Micheletti, Michela Troggio, Satish Kumar, Richard K. Volz, Andrew C. Allan, David Chagné, and Susan E. Gardiner
Alegre, 2006 ). Furthermore, red pigment content is implicated in the health attributes of apple fruit ( Boyer and Liu, 2004 ). The main pigment responsible for red color in apples is cyanidin-3-galactoside, which belongs to the anthocyanin family
Mohamed S. Al-Saikhan, Luke R. Howard, and J. Creighton Miller Jr.
The influence of variety and location on flesh color was examined using Texas and Colorado grown tubers from ten yellow flesh and two white flesh potato varieties. Flesh color was determined using a Hunter Colorimeter, which gives three readings, L* (lightness to darkness), a* (green-red index) and b* (blue-yellow index) Three readings were taken from each tuber at the distal end, center, and stem end. There were significant differences in color among varieties grown in each location for L*, and at both locations, the center was darker. The distal end had the highest chroma and hue angle values at both location. Significant differences were found between the same variety grown in both locations for L*, chroma, and hue. Chroma and hue were greater in Texas grow tubers which indicated more redness. Lower mean hue angle values indicated that Texas tubers were more red, whereas Colorado tubers were yellow. Higher mean chroma values indicated that Texas grown tubers were redder than Colorado grown tubers. L*, chroma, and hue angle are the most useful quantitative measurements.
T.G. Beckman and W.B. Sherman
Recently observed hybrid populations of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] provide evidence for the presence of a single gene controlling full red skin color. The fruit of seedling populations of `UFQueen' × `Springbaby', `UFQueen' × `Springprince, FL93-12C × `Springprince, FL92-22C × BY79P1945, and AP98-18 o.p. were rated for percent red skin color at full maturity. At this stage of development, “full red” phenotypes display red color over the entire surface of the fruit, including the stem cavity and portions of the fruit shaded by leaves or stems. Both crosses with `UFQueen yielded populations displaying a 1:1 segregation ration for partial red: full red. All other crosses produced populations that did not deviate significantly from a 3:1 segregation ratio. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the “full red” phenotype is a single gene recessive trait. We propose the gene symbols of fr and Fr for the recessive full red and dominant partial red (wild-type) alleles, respectively.