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Craig J. Frey, Xin Zhao, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Dustin M. Huff, and Zachary E. Black

. Marketable yield was determined by grading harvested fruit based on the following categories: marketable, decay, cracking, sunscald, BER, yellow shoulder disorder (YSD), stink bug damage, caterpillar (Lepidoptera) damage, and “other defects” (including small

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James P. Mattheis

commercial orchards in central Washington State. Lot effects for stored fruit were not significant; therefore, data from all lots were combined. All control fruit stored in air for 9 m were decayed 7 d after removal from storage. Control fruit softened to

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Peter M.A. Toivonen

quality defects (pitting, decay and stem browning) was assessed using previously described hedonic scales ( Kappel et al., 2002 ; Toivonen et al., 2004 ). Firmness was measured before and after storage using a FirmTech I testing instrument (BioWorks

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Zhengli Zhai, David L. Ehret, Tom Forge, Tom Helmer, Wei Lin, Martine Dorais, and Athanasios P. Papadopoulos

temperature of 10 °C (with fluctuation of 0.5 °C) and relative humidity of ≈80%. Each fruit was visually evaluated individually on the day of harvest and three times a week thereafter. Scores of decay index were: 0 = no sign of decay, still firm; 1 = first

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William Pelletier, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Maria Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, and Jean-Pierre Émond

the effects of a MA packaging (MAP) system on the fruit temperature and incidence of decay during shipments from California to Philadelphia and New York. The MAP system (Tectrol©; TransFresh Corp., Salinas, CA) consists of an entire pallet of

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Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez, Jesús Bautista, Gunawati Gunawan, Anthony Bateman, and Cliff Martin Riner

( Table 1 ). High N fertilization rates are often associated with increased incidences of plant diseases ( Marschner, 2012 ; Walters and Bingham, 2007 ). Incidences of bulb decay have been reported to increase with N fertilization rate ( Díaz-Pérez et al

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Derek W. Barchenger, John R. Clark, Renee T. Threlfall, Luke R. Howard, and Cindi R. Brownmiller

, and high perishability of the fruit ( James et al., 1999 ; Morris, 1980 ; Perkins-Veazie et al., 2012 ). Many variables contribute to muscadine storability, including berry maturity, texture (crispness), weight loss, decay, shriveling, browning

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M. Ahmed Ahmedullah

Fruit of Vitis vinifera cvs. Flame Seedless, Thompson Seedless and Black Monukka were fumigated with 4, 6 and 8 Deccodione Smoke Tables (DST) for 30 minutes. Fruit was stored at 32 F and high relative humidity. Decay control index, freshness of stems and bleaching around the capstem were recorded at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of storage. Size of the aerosol particles was determined using an electrical aerosol analyzer. Fruit was analysed for Deccodione residues.

Lower rates of the fungicide gave unsatisfactory decay control. Eight DSTs successfully controlled decay upto a period of 14 weeks. There was no bleaching of pigments commonly associated with sulfur dioxide fumigation. Majority of the aerosol particles were between 0.18 and 0.32 micrometers. Deccodione residues on the fruit were within the acceptable limits established for Deccodione. There was no perceptible difference in taste between treated and control fruit. This method of decay control could provide a viable alternative to sulfur dioxide fumigation.

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Mark A. Ritenour, Robert R. Pelosi, Michael S. Burton, Eddie W. Stover, Huating Dou, and T. Gregory McCollum

Studies were conducted between November 1999 and April 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of compounds applied preharvest for reducing postharvest decay on many types of fresh citrus (Citrus spp.) fruit. Commercially mature fruit were harvested two different times after the compounds were applied, degreened when necessary, washed, waxed (without fungicide), and then stored at 50 °F (10.0 °C) with 90% relative humidity. Compared to control (unsprayed) fruit, preharvest application of benomyl or thiophanate-methyl resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) less decay of citrus fruit after storage in nine out of ten experiments, often reducing decay by about half. In one experiment, pyraclostrobin and phosphorous acid also significantly decreased total decay by 29% and 36%, respectively, after storage compared to the control. Only benomyl and thiophanate-methyl significantly reduced stem-end rot (SER; primarily Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri) after storage, with an average of 65% less decay compared to the control. Though benomyl significantly reduced anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in two of four tests with substantial (>20%) infection and phosphorous acid significantly reduced it once, thiophanate-methyl did not significantly reduce the incidence of anthracnose postharvest. The data suggests that preharvest application of thiophanate-methyl may reduce postharvest SER and total decay similar to preharvest benomyl treatments.

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Ambani R. Mudau, Mpumelelo M. Nkomo, Puffy Soundy, Hintsa T. Araya, Wonder Ngezimana, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

shelf life of fruit and vegetables has been traditionally known and determined by means of visual appearance, including freshness, color, absenteeism of decay, and texture ( Ayala-Zavala et al., 2004 ). Storage conditions influence the phytochemical