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Xin Zhao, Qianru Liu, M. Tatiana Sanchez, and Nicholas S. Dufault

including nematodes (e.g., root-knot, Meloidogyne ), fungi (e.g., Verticillium , Fusarium , Pyrenochaeta , and Monosporascus ), oomycetes (e.g., Phytophthora ), bacteria (e.g., Ralstonia ), and several soil-borne viral pathogens ( Louws et al., 2010

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Kimberly A. Cochran and Craig S. Rothrock

populations of fungi, oomycetes and nematodes, and the diseases they cause ( Mazzola and Strauss, 2013 ; Ochiai et al., 2007 ; Snapp et al., 2007 ; Zasada and Ferris, 2004 ). For example, Rhizoctonia populations in apple orchard soils and root rot of

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Madhurababu Kunta, Sandy Chavez, Zenaida Viloria, Hilda S. del Rio, Madhavi Devanaboina, George Yanev, Jong-Won Park, and Eliezer S. Louzada

inoculum source until the environmental conditions are optimal. Phytophthora causes both above and below ground diseases, such as foot rot and gummosis of the trunk, brown rot of fruit, and fibrous root rot. Fibrous root rot may go unnoticed by growers

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Fahrettin Goktepe, Teresa Seijo, Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, Natalia A. Peres, and Robert J. McGovern

cut in the tuber. Disease severity was evaluated as either percent of rotted tuber tissue or plant mortality and reduction in tuber production 3 months later. Although these techniques allowed for identification of this pathogen and assessment of

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Margaret T. Mmbaga, Lucas A. Mackasmiel, and Frank A. Mrema

Macrophomina phaseolina is a well-documented soilborne pathogenic fungus that causes root rot or charcoal rot, collar rot, and damping-off diseases in diverse plants. More than 500 plant species across ≈100 genera that include food crops

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Na Liu, Baoli Zhou, Xin Zhao, Bo Lu, Yixiu Li, and Jing Hao

pathogen growth by root exudates has been reported in several studies. On the one hand, root exudates could inhibit the pathogen in rhizosphere directly. On the other hand, root exudates indirectly suppressed the pathogen by attracting antagonistic microbes

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Douglas S. Higgins and Mary K. Hausbeck

limited information about cultivar susceptibility to Phytophthora spp., and black root rot is largely unreported in the United States. A molecular diagnostic tool would be helpful to distinguish wet-rot CD symptoms caused by the two pathogens. Yet

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K.S. Lewers, W.W. Turechek, S.C. Hokanson, J.L. Maas, J.F. Hancock, S. Serçe, and B.J. Smith

common foliar diseases, resistance to black root rot (causal organisms unknown) ( Hancock et al., 2001b , 2002 ), and resistance to northern root-knot nematode ( Meloidogyne hapla ) and root-lesion nematode ( Pratylenchus penetrans ) ( Pinkerton and Finn

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Varieties with Partial Resistance to Pythium Root Rot Lookabaugh et al. (p. 805) evaluated 62 commercial poinsettia varieties for resistance to pythium root rot. Variety performance varied widely across propagator lines, bract color, response time, and

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Vance M. Whitaker, Craig K. Chandler, Natalia Peres, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto, and Charles A. Sims

well in this transplant format. Field trials were conducted during the 2012–13 and 2013–14 seasons to determine resistance to fruit, foliar, and crown pathogens. Inoculation methods for anthracnose fruit rot, charcoal rot, phytophthora and