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Regina P. Bracy

Field studies were conducted in Spring 1991, 1992, and 1993 to determine if stand deficiencies of 10%, 20%, or 30% affected bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yield and fruit size. Subsequent replanting to a 100% stand and timing of replanting also were evaluated for effects on fruit yield. Stand deficiencies of up to 30% and replanting to a complete stand 2 or 3 weeks after initial transplanting did not affect yield per acre and average weight per fruit of bell pepper plants grown on polyethylene-mulched beds during 3 years of tests. Bell pepper plants grown in 10%, 20%, or 30% deficient stand had greater marketable yield per plant than plants grown in 100% stand. Replanting to a complete stand 3 weeks after initial transplanting decreased early marketable yield and production per plant over replanting 2 weeks after initial transplanting.

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Brian R. Poel and Erik S. Runkle

. During commercial seedling production, a minimum DLI of 10–12 mol·m −2 ·d −1 has been recommended to achieve suitable seedling quality and reduced time to flower after transplant ( Lopez and Runkle, 2008 ; Pramuk and Runkle, 2005 ). Commercial

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D.S. NeSmith

Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to determine the influence of transplant age on growth and yield of `Dixie' and `Senator' summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Dry weight and leaf area measurements indicated that 28- to 35-day-old greenhouse-grown transplants grew more slowly after transplanting than plants that were 10, 14, or 21 days old. Older transplants flowered earlier; however, earlier flowering did not result in higher early yields. Transplants of varying ages did not differ greatly in yield and yield components in the field, although all transplants had higher early yields than the directly seeded controls. Results from these experiments suggest that 21 days may be a reasonable target age for transplanting summer squash. If transplanting were delayed by adverse planting conditions, 21-day-old transplants would likely have at least a 10-day window of flexibility before yields would be reduced notably by additional aging.

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Daniel I. Leskovar and Daniel J. Cantliffe

Shoot and root growth changes in response to handling and storage time in `Sunny' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplants were investigated. Transplants, 45 days old, were stored either in trays (nonpulled) or packed in boxes (pulled) for 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 days at 5 and 15C. Also, 35-day-old nonpulled and pulled transplants were kept in darkness at 20/28C for 0, 1, 2, or 3 days. At SC, pulled transplants had longer and heavier stems, a higher shoot: root ratio, higher ethylene evolution, and lower root dry weight than nonpulled transplants. At 15C, pulled transplants had more shoot growth than nonpulled transplants. Nonpulled, initially 35-day-old transplants had heavier shoots and roots and higher (7.0 t·ha-1) yields of extra-large fruit than pulled transplants (4.1 t·ha-1), but there were no differences in the total yields of marketable fruits.

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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

is one of the most desirable traits for bedding plants ( Hu et al., 2012 ). Tomato is one of the most widely grown vegetables in the world ( Passam, 2008 ). Tomato transplants in a retail setting also often suffer from inadequate watering. Increasing

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Andreas Westphal, Nicole L. Snyder, Lijuan Xing, and James J. Camberato

produced with a transplant system on plastic mulch ( Hochmuth et al., 2001 ). Seedlings are produced in peatmoss-based, soilless potting mixes in plastic trays. This production system allows for early and rapid establishment of 1-month-old transplants into

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Masahumi Johkan, Kazuhiro Shoji, Fumiyuki Goto, Shin-nosuke Hashida, and Toshihiro Yoshihara

germination and uniformity in seedling morphology is easy to manage in plant nurseries, allowing seedlings of high quality to be raised. The quality of seedlings affects their growth and yield after transplantation. Good-quality seedlings exhibit morphological

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Toyoki Kozai and Tadashi Ito

Commercial transplant production in Japan has been increasing rapidly since 1985. Transplant production began with plug seedlings for bedding plants, followed by carnation and Chrysanthemum plug transplants vegetatively-propagated using cuttings. Next, production more recently includes plug seedlings of lettuce and cabbage, and micropropagated tubers of potato plants and grafted transplants of tomato, eggplant, cucumber, and watermelon plants. The reasons for the rapid increase in commercial production of transplants will be reviewed. The current “cutting edge” practices include hardening before shipping or planting. The pros and cons of current transplant production systems in Japan will be discussed. Recent research advances in production of micropropagated, grafted and seedling transplants are reviewed with special reference to environmental control for hardening or acclimatization. Research on robotic or automated systems for micropropagation, grafting, and transplanting currently developed in Japan are described.

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Lawrance N. Shaw

The use of containerized transplants will increase in the future because of greater survival rates and improved yields. Many transplant operations are already mechanized. Fully automatic field transplanting is highly feasible in the future for several vegetable crops and may become a common practice with most commercial crops. Technology is developing that uses the greenhouse growing trays as magazines to be loaded into the transplanting machines. Automatic field transplanters will then set plants into the soil at rates of 3 to 4 per second. To accomplish this, the following are required: highest quality uniform seedlings; greater seedling tolerance to handling stresses; no dead or missing plants in transplant trays; standardized cell containers; and precise cell arrangement to allow whole rows of plants to be mass removed simultaneously to reach the highest transplanter machine capacity. Plant production and greenhouse growing systems need to be modified to facilitate automatic field transplanting.

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Toshio Shibuya, Ryosuke Endo, Yoshiaki Kitaya, and Mizuki Tsuchida

During transplant production, young plants are generally grown densely to improve the productivity per unit growing area ( Marr and Jirak, 1990 ). Growing plants at high density stimulates stem elongation due to increased competition for light