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R.J. Campbell and C. de B. Campbell

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) currently ranks fifth, along with apple, among fresh fruit imported by the United States, with more than 142,000 MT imported in 1995. Imports have doubled in the past 5 years and are projected to increase by 20% to 30% by the year 2000. Mexico supplied >80% of the imported volume in 1995, with the remaining 20% supplied by Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, Peru, and Venezuela. Individual production areas (countries) have traditionally controlled a market, defined by time of year, resulting in a near 12-month supply of mangos in the United States in the past few years. However, market share among producing countries is rapidly changing as individual producers and production regions extend their season through the use of different available microclimates, bloom manipulation, and new cultivars. With this extension of production season in each region, there is now significant market overlap and traditional regional windows have been shortened or eliminated. Producers in all regions must now make timely management decisions to assure their future profitability. A holistic management scheme involving attention to fruit quality, cultivar selection, volume consistency, and marketing is presented. Such a management plan is key to an individual region's success in establishing and holding a given market window.

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Michael W. Smith and Bruce W. Wood

Allometric equations were developed for orchard-grown pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees. Trees, ranging in size from 22 to 33 cm in trunk diameter 1.4 m above the ground, were destructively harvested from two sites. The entire aboveground portion of each tree was harvested and then divided into leaves, current season's shoots, and branches ≥1 year old plus trunk. Roots were sampled by digging a trench beginning beneath the trunk and extending to one-half the distance to an adjacent tree, then separating the roots from the soil. Roots were then divided into those less than 1 cm in diameter and those ≥1 cm in diameter. Equations in the form Y = eaXb were developed to estimate dry biomass of most tree components and the whole tree, where Y is the dry weight, e is the base of the natural logarithm, X is the trunk diameter at 1.4 m above the ground, and a and b are coefficients. A linear equation provided the best fit for estimating the weight of the current season's growth. Power equations were also developed to estimate the weights of inner bark and wood for different size trunks or branches.

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J.M. Kemble, P. Sanders, W. Foshee, and D. Fields

High tunnels (HT) can reduce negative environmental strains on crop production and have been shown to extend the growing season for many small fruits and vegetables. Because HTs require relatively low initial investment compared with standard greenhouse structures, they are well suited for the small to mid-size grower. HTs provide a practical means of entry into intensive crop production for farmers who direct market their produce. By using HTs, direct market farmers may create a special marketing niche which set's them apart by offering locally grown vegetables, cut flowers, small fruits, and herbs earlier in the growing season and into the fall after frost. This project examined 1) the potential use of HTs for the production of fresh-market tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and strawberries (Fragaria spp.) and 2) the seasonal market potential for these crops in Alabama. Viable markets were determined by conducting surveys at regional locations throughout Alabama, such as farmers markets, grocery stores, shopping centers, etc. Upscale restaurants were also surveyed to determine the demand for locally grown herbs. These surveys were used to determine target markets by asking demographic questions and determining spending habits. Justification for establishing a direct farmer-to-consumer market or a direct farmer to restaurant market for HT products was determined.

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Chris Starbuck, Daniel K. Struve, and Hannah Mathers

Two experiments were conducted to determine if 5.1-cm-caliper (2 inches) `Summit' green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica), and 7.6-cm-caliper (3 inches) northern red oak (Quercus rubra) could be successfully summer transplanted after being heeled in pea gravel or wood chips prior to planting in the landscape. Spring harvested trees of each species were either balled and burlapped (B&B) or barerooted before heeling in pea gravel or wood chips. Compared to B&B `Summit' green ash, bareroot stock had similar survival and shoot extension for three growing seasons after summer transplanting. Bareroot and B&B northern red oak trees had similar survival and central leader elongation for 3 years after summer transplanting. In the third year after transplanting, northern red oak bareroot trees heeled in pea had smaller trunk caliper than B&B trees heeled in wood chips. These two taxa can be summer transplanted B&B or bareroot if dormant stock is spring-dug and maintained in a heeling-in bed before transplanting. This method of reducing transplant shock by providing benign conditions for root regeneration can also be used to extended the planting season for field-grown nursery stock; the method is called the Missouri gravel bed system.

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Timothy Spann, Robert H. Beede, Steven A. Weinbaum, and Theodore M. DeJong

Rootstock significantly alters the pattern of shoot growth of pistachio (Pistacia vera) cv. Kerman. Trees grown on P. atlantica typically produce a single flush of spring growth, whereas trees on P. integerrima selection PGI and P. atlantica × P. integerrima selection UCB-1 can produce multiple flushes during the season. We have shown that the spring flush is entirely preformed in the dormant bud for all three rootstocks, but later flushes are neoformed, that is, nodes are initiated and extended during the same season. Shoots producing both preformed and neoformed growth have lower yield efficiency than those producing only preformed growth. Additionally, yield components of the crop from shoots with both preformed and neoformed growth was different than for shoots producing only preformed growth. However, these differences do not appear to be significant at the whole tree level. These data suggest that neoformed growth can both compete with fruit growth for available resources (lower yield efficiency) and act as an additional source (altered yield components), depending on the factor being measured. Controlling neoformed growth may potentially increase pistachio yield through a shift to the more efficient preformed shoots while at the same time lowering orchard maintenance costs by reducing required pruning. We have data to indicate that regulated deficit irrigation and new pruning techniques may be viable methods for controlling neoformed growth in pistachio without affecting yield.

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Zachary J. Reicher and Glenn A. Hardebeck

Converting cool-season golf course fairways to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) is desirable because it affords excellent playability, enhanced recuperative potential, and enhanced disease tolerance compared to annual bluegrass (Poa annua sp. Timm.) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), which are common species in fairways. However, converting current golf course fairways to creeping bentgrass with nonselective herbicides is problematic because it disrupts play and decreases revenue, as fairways must be closed for an extended period of time. The objective of our study was to quantify the effect of trinexapac-ethyl (TE), overseeding date, and overseeding rate on the success on the gradual conversion of cool-season fairways to creeping bentgrass over 3 years. `Penneagle' creeping bentgrass was overseeded at 0, 49, or 98 kg·ha-1 in fall, spring, or fall+spring after aerification, and application of TE at 0.0, 0.2, or 0.4 kg·ha-1. Gradual conversion to creeping bentgrass was effective, on perennial ryegrass fairways, with up to 36% cover of creeping bentgrass after 3 years of overseeding. However, only a maximum of 3% creeping bentgrass cover was obtained after the third year of overseeding into primarily annual bluegrass fairways. Fall overseeding with bentgrass at 49 or 98 kg·ha-1 was equally effective and additional spring overseeding did not improve establishment. Applications of TE prior to overseeding did not enhance the conversion. Chemical name used: 4-cyclopropyl-a-hydroxy-methylene-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl).

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Christopher A. Proctor, Matt D. Sousek, Aaron J. Patton, Daniel V. Weisenberger, and Zachary J. Reicher

; Hinton et al., 2001 ) and are commercially available. The objectives of our study were to determine if changing a.i. in initial and sequential applications affects season-long crabgrass control and if single spring applications of PRE tank mixtures

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Laurie G. Houck, Joel F. Jenner, and Bruce E. Mackey

Commercially packed lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.), grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfayden) and oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck) from CA and AZ were fumigated in corrugated fiberboard shipping boxes with methyl bromide (MB) at doses efficacious for controlling various postharvest insect pests. Fruit developed no rind injury when fumigated at 24 or 32 g MB/m3 for 2 hr at 21C. At 40 g MB fruit developed slight to moderate peel injury, and sometimes there were more decayed fruit. More rind injury developed at 48 gm MB, the injury was more severe, and there were more decays. Curing fruit for 3-4 days at 15-20C before fumigation, and extending the aeration period after fumigation from a few hours to 1 or 3 days reduced fruit injury. Early-season fruit were not injured as severely as late-season fruit. Lemons picked with green-colored peel but fumigated after they turned yellow (by holding at 13C for 4-10 weeks to degreen) were not injured as much as silver or yellow lemons.

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Rebecca L. Darnell, Horacio E. Alvarado, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Bryan Brunner, María Plaza, and Edna Negrón

There is increasing interest in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) production worldwide due to increased demand for both fresh and processed fruit. Although the United States is the third largest raspberry producer in the world, domestic demand exceeds supply, and the shortage in fresh market raspberries is filled by imported fruit from Canada during July and August, and from Mexico and Chile during November through May. The raspberry harvest season is well defined and the perishability of the fruit limits postharvest storage. Winter production of raspberry in tropical and subtropical climates could extend the harvest season and allow off-season fruit production during periods of high market prices. The objective of the current study was to examine growth and yield of red raspberry cultivars grown in an annual winter production system in Florida and Puerto Rico. Long cane cultivars were purchased from a nursery in the Pacific northwestern U.S. in 2002 (`Heritage' and `Tulameen'), 2003 (`Tulameen' and `Willamette'), and 2004 (`Tulameen' and `Cascade Delight') and planted in raised beds in polyethylene tunnels in December (Florida) or under an open-sided polyethylene structure in January-March (Puerto Rico). In Florida, harvest occurred from ∼mid-March through the end of May, while in Puerto Rico, harvest occurred from the end of March through early June (except in 2002, when canes were planted in March). Yields per cane varied with cultivar, but ranged from ∼80 to 600 g/cane for `Tulameen', 170 to 290 g/cane for `Heritage', 135 to 350 g/cane for `Willamette', and ∼470 g/cane for `Cascade Delight'. Economic analysis suggests that, at this point, returns on this system would be marginal. However, increasing cane number per unit area and increasing pollination efficiency may increase yields, while planting earlier would increase the return per unit. The key to success may hinge on developing a system where multi-year production is feasible in a warm winter climate.

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J.R. Ballington

Day-neutral strawberries have the potential to fruit throughout the growing season as long as maximum air temperatures do not exceed 32.2 °C for extended periods. Appropriate temperatures for season-long production of day-neutrals occur in the southern Appalachians at 900 m elevations and above. Replicated studies were conducted at Laurel Springs (900 m elevation) in northwestern N.C. in 2002–04 to determine the most promising combinations of mulch types, planting dates and cultivars. Plasticulture establishment recommendations were followed and white/black plastic mulch compared to black. Dormant plants were established 15 Apr., 1 May, or 15 May at 12 × 12 inch spacing in 2002; plug plants on 30 Oct. 2002 at 12 × 12 inches and overwintered under rowcovers for 2003; and plug plants on 25 Sept. 2003 or 23 Oct. 2003 at 18 × 12 inches and overwintered under rowcovers for 2004. Plants came from commercial sources. Aromas, Diamante, Everest, and Seascape were included in 2002; Diamante, Everest and Seascape in 2003; and Everest and Seascape in 2004. Harvest season lasted 11 weeks in 2002, 12 weeks in 2003, and 10 weeks in 2004. Only main effects were statistically significant. White and black plastic mulch yields were significantly higher than black two years out of three. Fall planting resulted in earlier onset of production and higher yields in most cases. Planting date was important; for fall planting, midto late September was superior to October planting, and for spring planting, middle to late April was superior to mid-May. A plant spacing of 18 inches between plants in rows and 12 inches between rows was important to avoid crowding when planting in fall. Everest and Seascape had the best overall performance.