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John A. Menge, Greg W. Douhan, Brandon McKee, Elinor Pond, Gary S. Bender, and Ben Faber

many extant cultivars are racial hybrids, thus possessing variable characteristics (Ashworth and Clegg, 2003; Davis et al., 1998 ; Douhan et al., 2011 ). This extensive genetic variability is important because it potentially provides ample germplasm

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Kevin Crosby, Daniel Leskovar, John Jifon, and Kilsun Yoo

The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station/Texas A&M University announces the release of two new open-pollinated cultivars of long chile. The first, `TAM Ben Villalon,'(TBV) is a long green chile/Anaheim type, while the second, `TAM Valley Hot,' (TVH) is a large cayenne type. Both cultivars have complex pedigrees involving TAES potyvirus resistant germplasm developed by Ben Villalon. Consequently, they exhibit resistance to some strains of tobacco etch virus when mechanically inoculated. In addition, TBV exhibits resistance to several strains of pepper mottle virus. These new cultivars out-yielded their comparable commercial cultivars, `Sonora,' and `Mesilla', when grown with drip irrigation at Weslaco and Uvalde, Texas. TBV yielded 16,632 kg/ha of green pods, compared to 14,228 kg/ha for `Sonora.' Both cultivars had similar capsaicin concentrations of 30–40 ppm on a fresh-weight basis. TBV pods are significantly heavier than those of `Sonora' due to thicker flesh. It should be useful for the green chile processing and fresh market industries. TBV may also be dried at the red stage to produce chile powder, which is very similar in quality to that of `NM 6-4.' TVH pods are not significantly different from `Mesilla' for size or weight, but contain significantly more capsaicin (670 vs. 320 ppm) when grown at Weslaco. TVH should be well-suited to the cayenne mash industry for hot sauce production due to its high heat level. Both cultivars will be distributed through commercial seed companies after receiving approval for Plant Variety Protection Patents.

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H.C. Wien, B.S. Orenstein, and L.A. Ellerbrock

Although it has been known since the 1930s that long photoperiods and high temperatures hasten bulb formation in onions, the time at which onion cultivars under field conditions in New York start forming bulbs has not been previously reported. In the 1997 and 1998, onion cultivars were seeded in three commercial onion production areas at normal early spring planting dates. In 1998, a time-of-planting study was carried out in Ithaca, N.Y., in which three transplanted crops and three direct-seeded crops were established at monthly intervals beginning at the end of March. Bulb ratios (bulb diameter: neck diameter) were measured at 2-week intervals during the season in all plantings. Initiation of bulbs (assumed to occur 3 weeks before bulb ratio reached 2) was then related to the photoperiod and air temperature up to that point. A comparison of early, mid-season, and late cultivars indicated that bulbs are initiated in commercial plantings in New York at close to the longest day of the year (15.6 h), at a time when mean temperature is still rising. In the time of planting study, delay of planting resulted in fewer days from emergence to bulb initiation and a reduction in growing degree-day accumulation. If planted later than 15 June, some cultivars failed to initiate bulbs, but others, such as `Quantum' and `Winner', initiated bulbs but did not mature them. The results indicate that photoperiod appears to be the primary factor for the initiation of bulbs, but that bulb initiation can be modified strongly in some cultivars by temperature.

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Carolyn E. Lister, Jane E. Lancaster, and John R.L. Walker

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was measured in a range of New Zealand-grown apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars at three stages of fruit development. Anthocyanin and total flavonoid levels were also measured (by HPLC) in the same fruit. There was wide variation in the level of PAL activity, anthocyanin and total flavonoid levels in different apple cultivars and at different stages of development. There was no apparent correlation between average PAL activity over the three developmental stages and final anthocyanin concentration (r = 0.34, P > 0.1), but there was significant correlation between average PAL activity over the three developmental stages and the final concentration of total flavonoids (r = 0.75, P < 0.02). An inhibitor, PAL-IS, was also assayed in the same fruit but no correlation was found between PAL-IS and final anthocyanin levels (r = -0.30, P > 0.1) or total flavonoid levels (r = 0.15, P > 0.1). These results suggest that PAL activity has an influence on total flavonoid levels in the fruit but that PAL-IS does not. Anthocyanin levels are likely controlled at a point in the flavonoid pathway other than PAL or PAL-IS.

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Xiaohong Wu, Duan Wang, Xuefeng Chen, Congwei Sun, Xiping Zhao, and Chenjuan Jing

, resulting in the successful release of new apricot cultivars such as ‘Zaojinyan’ from the Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute and ‘Chunhua’ from the Shandong Institute of Pomology in China ( Huang et al., 2019 ; Yuan et al., 2019 ). However, the ecological

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Narathid Muakrong, Patcharin Tanya, and Peerasak Srinives

showed a potential for ornamental purpose in India ( Sujatha and Prabakaran, 2003 ). ‘Kamphaeng Saen 1’, ‘Kamphaeng Saen 2’, and ‘Kamphaeng Saen 3’ are new ornamental jatropha cultivars improved by the Jatropha breeder team of Kasetsart University

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Darren L. Haver and Ursula K. Schuch

New Guinea impatiens cuttings from Mikkelsens, Inc. Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named nor criticism of similar ones not named. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges

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Wagner Vendrame, Kimberly K. Moore, and Timothy K. Broschat

New guinea impatiens (Impatiens hawkeri) (NGI) `Pure Beauty Rose' (PBR) and `Paradise Orchid' (PO) were grown in full sun, 55% shade, or 73% shade and fertilized with a controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) [Nutricote Total 13-13-13 (13N-5.7P-10.8K), type 100] incorporated at rates of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 lb/yard3 of growing media (1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.7, 7.1, 9.5, 11.9, 14.2, 16.6, and 19.0 kg·m-3). Plant quality rating, shoot dry weight, and flower number were measured at harvest and substrate samples were collected to analyze final substrate pH and electrical conductivity (EC). For both cultivars, light intensity and fertilization rate interactions were different for shoot dry weight and flower number, but there was no difference in plant quality rating between the light levels. Quality ratings of both PBR and PO plants increased as CRF rate increased to 12 to 16 lb/yard3 above these levels quality was not improved. Shoot dry weight of PBR plants grown in full sun increased as CRF rate increased to 28 lb/yard3 and then decreased, while shoot dry weight of plants grown with 55% and 73% shade increased as CRF rate increased to 20 and 16 lb/yard3, respectively, with no further increases. Shoot dry weight of PO plants grown in full sun and 55% shade increased as CRF rate increased to 28 and 24 lb/yard3, respectively, with no further increases, while shoot dry weight of plants grown with 73% shade increased as CRF rate increased to 24 lb/yard3 and then decreased. Flower number of PBR plants grown in full sun, 55% shade, and 73% shade increased as CRF rate increased to 24 lb/yard3 and then decreased. Flower number of PO plants grown in full sun increased as CRF rate increased to 28 lb/yard3 and then decreased, while flower number of plants grown in 55% and 73% shade increased as CRF rate increased to 24 lb/yard3 and then decreased.

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T.J. Gianfagna, R.H. Merritt, and J.D. Willmott

Aquilegia cultivars `Songbird Bluebird', `Songbird Robin', `Dove Improved', `Colorado Violet/White' and five cultivars from new experimental genetic lines (`Red and White', `Rose and White #1', `Rose and White #2', `Scarlet and Yellow' and `White') will flower without vernalization, but little is known of their response to light or plant growth regulators. Plants were started from seed on 5 Jan. 1999 and grown in either natural light or 33% shade, and treated with gibberellins (GA4/7) at the seven-leaf stage. Flowering time, number of flowers/plant, and plant height were evaluated through 31 May 1999. All five cultivars from the new genetic lines bloomed during the study. `White', grown in shade and treated with GA4/7, bloomed 2 weeks earlier (115 days) than untreated plants grown in natural light (130 days). `Songbird Robin', treated with GA4/7, bloomed in 146 days, and was the only other cultivar to bloom. Flower numbers were greater in natural light than in 33% shade. GA4/7 increased flowering for four of five cultivars, in the new genetic lines, grown in natural light. In shade, GA4/7 increased flowering for three of five cultivars. Height response to GA4/7 was significant in both natural light and 33% shade. Four of the five cultivars in the new genetic lines were taller when treated. All five of these cultivars were taller when grown in natural light verses 33% shade. `White' and both `Rose and White' cultivars were consistently taller, bloomed earlier and were more floriferous when treated with GA4/7.

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Emily G. Tenczar and Vera A. Krischik

resistant to specialist leaf-feeding beetles (Coleoptera) and moths (Lepidoptera). Coevolutionary theory argues that new phytochemicals in a plant may permit the plant to escape from herbivory by confusing the insect with the novel chemical. Specialist