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Phillip A. Wadl, Mark T. Windham, Richard Evans, and Robert N. Trigiano

exfoliating bark. Retail and wholesale sales of dogwood in the United States account for over $30 million dollars annually with 73.1% of these sales coming from eight states [Maryland, Minnesota, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and

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Ning Shi, Xiaojing Liu, Fengfeng Du, Yajun Chang, Naiwei Li, Yuesheng Ding, and Dongrui Yao

Hort. Soc., Westminster, London Wang, Q.C. Zhang, X.Y. 2004 Lotus flower cultivars in China. China For. Publishing House, Beijing, China Zhang, X.Y. Chen, L.Q. Wang, Q.C. 2011 New lotus flower cultivars in China. China For. Publishing House, Beijing

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Zhanao Deng, Natalia A. Peres, and Johan Desaeger

Princess and Red Hot were released in 2012 ( Deng et al., 2013 ). However, the acreage for these two recent releases is still very limited. Two new lance-leaved cultivars, Pink Panther ( Figs. 1 and 2 ) and Crimson Skye ( Figs. 3 and 4 ), were released

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John A. Menge, Greg W. Douhan, Brandon McKee, Elinor Pond, Gary S. Bender, and Ben Faber

many extant cultivars are racial hybrids, thus possessing variable characteristics (Ashworth and Clegg, 2003; Davis et al., 1998 ; Douhan et al., 2011 ). This extensive genetic variability is important because it potentially provides ample germplasm

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Kevin Crosby, Daniel Leskovar, John Jifon, and Kilsun Yoo

The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station/Texas A&M University announces the release of two new open-pollinated cultivars of long chile. The first, `TAM Ben Villalon,'(TBV) is a long green chile/Anaheim type, while the second, `TAM Valley Hot,' (TVH) is a large cayenne type. Both cultivars have complex pedigrees involving TAES potyvirus resistant germplasm developed by Ben Villalon. Consequently, they exhibit resistance to some strains of tobacco etch virus when mechanically inoculated. In addition, TBV exhibits resistance to several strains of pepper mottle virus. These new cultivars out-yielded their comparable commercial cultivars, `Sonora,' and `Mesilla', when grown with drip irrigation at Weslaco and Uvalde, Texas. TBV yielded 16,632 kg/ha of green pods, compared to 14,228 kg/ha for `Sonora.' Both cultivars had similar capsaicin concentrations of 30–40 ppm on a fresh-weight basis. TBV pods are significantly heavier than those of `Sonora' due to thicker flesh. It should be useful for the green chile processing and fresh market industries. TBV may also be dried at the red stage to produce chile powder, which is very similar in quality to that of `NM 6-4.' TVH pods are not significantly different from `Mesilla' for size or weight, but contain significantly more capsaicin (670 vs. 320 ppm) when grown at Weslaco. TVH should be well-suited to the cayenne mash industry for hot sauce production due to its high heat level. Both cultivars will be distributed through commercial seed companies after receiving approval for Plant Variety Protection Patents.

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H.C. Wien, B.S. Orenstein, and L.A. Ellerbrock

Although it has been known since the 1930s that long photoperiods and high temperatures hasten bulb formation in onions, the time at which onion cultivars under field conditions in New York start forming bulbs has not been previously reported. In the 1997 and 1998, onion cultivars were seeded in three commercial onion production areas at normal early spring planting dates. In 1998, a time-of-planting study was carried out in Ithaca, N.Y., in which three transplanted crops and three direct-seeded crops were established at monthly intervals beginning at the end of March. Bulb ratios (bulb diameter: neck diameter) were measured at 2-week intervals during the season in all plantings. Initiation of bulbs (assumed to occur 3 weeks before bulb ratio reached 2) was then related to the photoperiod and air temperature up to that point. A comparison of early, mid-season, and late cultivars indicated that bulbs are initiated in commercial plantings in New York at close to the longest day of the year (15.6 h), at a time when mean temperature is still rising. In the time of planting study, delay of planting resulted in fewer days from emergence to bulb initiation and a reduction in growing degree-day accumulation. If planted later than 15 June, some cultivars failed to initiate bulbs, but others, such as `Quantum' and `Winner', initiated bulbs but did not mature them. The results indicate that photoperiod appears to be the primary factor for the initiation of bulbs, but that bulb initiation can be modified strongly in some cultivars by temperature.

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Carolyn E. Lister, Jane E. Lancaster, and John R.L. Walker

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was measured in a range of New Zealand-grown apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars at three stages of fruit development. Anthocyanin and total flavonoid levels were also measured (by HPLC) in the same fruit. There was wide variation in the level of PAL activity, anthocyanin and total flavonoid levels in different apple cultivars and at different stages of development. There was no apparent correlation between average PAL activity over the three developmental stages and final anthocyanin concentration (r = 0.34, P > 0.1), but there was significant correlation between average PAL activity over the three developmental stages and the final concentration of total flavonoids (r = 0.75, P < 0.02). An inhibitor, PAL-IS, was also assayed in the same fruit but no correlation was found between PAL-IS and final anthocyanin levels (r = -0.30, P > 0.1) or total flavonoid levels (r = 0.15, P > 0.1). These results suggest that PAL activity has an influence on total flavonoid levels in the fruit but that PAL-IS does not. Anthocyanin levels are likely controlled at a point in the flavonoid pathway other than PAL or PAL-IS.

Open access

Xiaohong Wu, Duan Wang, Xuefeng Chen, Congwei Sun, Xiping Zhao, and Chenjuan Jing

, resulting in the successful release of new apricot cultivars such as ‘Zaojinyan’ from the Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute and ‘Chunhua’ from the Shandong Institute of Pomology in China ( Huang et al., 2019 ; Yuan et al., 2019 ). However, the ecological

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Narathid Muakrong, Patcharin Tanya, and Peerasak Srinives

showed a potential for ornamental purpose in India ( Sujatha and Prabakaran, 2003 ). ‘Kamphaeng Saen 1’, ‘Kamphaeng Saen 2’, and ‘Kamphaeng Saen 3’ are new ornamental jatropha cultivars improved by the Jatropha breeder team of Kasetsart University

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Darren L. Haver and Ursula K. Schuch

New Guinea impatiens cuttings from Mikkelsens, Inc. Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named nor criticism of similar ones not named. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges