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Alfredo Reyes-Tena, Arturo Castro-Rocha, Gerardo Rodríguez-Alvarado, Gerardo Vázquez-Marrufo, Martha Elena Pedraza-Santos, Kurt Lamour, John Larsen, and Sylvia Patricia Fernández-Pavía

to the same conditions but were not inoculated with zoospores. The pathogen was reisolated from plants with symptoms. Disease scoring. The severity of the disease was scored based on the following scale: 0 = no symptoms/healthy plant; 1 = yellow

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Christopher P. Ryan, Peter H. Dernoeden, and Arvydas P. Grybauskas

epidemics in the summer, each with multiple smaller “steps” (sensu Hall, 1984 ), where a period of disease decline was followed by an increase in disease severity ( Figs. 1 to 3 ). Two cultivars, Crenshaw and Backspin, were extensively damaged every year

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Kenneth R. Summy and Christopher R. Little

sooty mold (q); ( IV ) ‘Bo’ tree: control (r), honeydew (s), and sooty mold (t); grapefruit: control (healthy) (u), greasy spot ( M. citri ) [low (v), intermediate (w), and high disease severity (x)]. Image backgrounds were masked for purposes of visual

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Mark A. Williams, John G. Strang, Ricardo T. Bessin, Derek Law, Delia Scott, Neil Wilson, Sarah Witt, and Douglas D. Archbold

, there were no research studies from Kentucky or adjacent states that had assessed the severity of the known challenges to organic apple production ( Hinman and Ames, 2011 ) or the effectiveness of recommended OMRI-approved pest and disease management

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Robert M. Pyne, Adolfina R. Koroch, Christian A. Wyenandt, and James E. Simon

disease severity; however, organic controls tested to date remain ineffective ( Homa et al., 2014 ; Mersha et al., 2012 ). The efficacy of chemical control agents is dependent on many factors including host developmental stage, application rate

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Holly A. Little, Rebecca Grumet, and James F. Hancock

resistance, enhanced disease resistance, modified metabolism, and altered growth and development ( Nickson, 2008 ; Wolfenbarger and Grumet, 2002 ; USDA-APHIS records). Such modifications could allow for cultivation of crops under adverse or marginal

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Eric T. Wolske, Bruce E. Branham, and Kevin J. Wolz

severity and did not provide complete control. Plant powdery mildew severity was evaluated from May until August in 2017 and 2018. Plant injury was rated on a 10-point ordinal disease scale: 0 = no powdery mildew; 1 = powdery mildew detected; 2 = 6 to 20

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Sacha Buller, Debra Inglis, and Carol Miles

, 85, and 99 DAT at Eltopia in 2011. At Mount Vernon, disease severity was evaluated weekly beginning at 53 DAT and ending at 101 DAT in 2010 and biweekly in 2011 beginning at 42 DAT and ending at 98 DAT. Verticillium wilt severity was evaluated on

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Enrique I. Sánchez-González, J. Guadalupe Gutiérrez-Soto, Emilio Olivares-Sáenz, Adriana Gutiérrez-Díez, Alejandro F. Barrientos-Priego, and Salvador Ochoa-Ascencio

number of nodes per seedling. The data obtained from aerial damage severity were used to calculate the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) ( Rodríguez et al., 2017 ). The relative AUDPC (rAUDPC) was calculated using the following formula: rAUDPC

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Narinder P.S. Dhillon, Supannika Sanguansil, Supornpun Srimat, Roland Schafleitner, B. Manjunath, Parag Agarwal, Qu Xiang, Mohammed Abu Taher Masud, Thaingi Myint, Ngo Thi Hanh, Tran Kim Cuong, Conrado H. Balatero, Venus Salutan-Bautista, Michel Pitrat, Aleš Lebeda, and James D. McCreight

sporulating CPM were used as spreader plants, placed between rows as additional sources of powdery mildew inoculum. Disease severity was rated on leaves of individual plants 30 d after the second inoculation using a 0–5 visual rating scale, where 0 = no