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D.A. Dierig, P.M. Tomasi, and T.A. Coffelt

Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats., Brassicaceae, is a potential oilseed crop native to the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxy fatty acids, similar to castor. Unique properties of the oil, along with coproducts, allow additional applications that would not be in competition with castor. Plants with vestigial anthers were discovered in a bulk population growing in the greenhouse in 1993. The inheritance of the trait was investigated the following three crop seasons. Crosses were made among sterile and fertile plants and reciprocals among fertile plants. Chi-square results indicate the male sterility trait is expressed by a recessive nuclear gene with cytoplasmic influence restoring fertility. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines can be utilized for development of hybrids. Development of lines without male sterility should lead to higher yields than current bulk populations of lesquerella. Hybrid plants and higher yields will enhance the commercialization potential of this new, alternative crop.

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Jonathan M. Frantz, Cary A. Mitchell, and Jay Frick

A solid-matrix-over-liquid (hybrid) growth system was developed for direct sowing of small-seeded crop species into hydroponic culture and compared for performance with a standard solid-matrix, capillary-wick hydroponic system. Seeds were sown directly onto a 3-cm (1.2-inch) deep soilless seed bed occupying 0.147 m2 (1.582 ft2) within a tray. The planted seed bed was moistened by wicking up nutrient solution through polyester wicking material from a 7.0-L (6.6-qt) reservoir just below the matrix seed bed. The hybrid system successfully grew dense [435 plants/m2 (40.4 plants/ft2)], uniform canopies of dwarf Brassica napus L. in a controlled-environment growth room. Seed yield using the hybrid system was twice that achieved with the matrix-based system. Both systems eliminated the labor needed to transplant many small seedlings from a separate nurse bed into a standard bulk liquid hydroponic system. Root-zone pH extremes caused by ion uptake and exchange between roots and unrinsed soilless media were avoided for the hybrid system by the short dwell time of roots in the thin matrix before they grew through the matrix and an intervening headspace into the bulk solution below, where pH was easily managed. Once roots grew into the bulk solution, its level was lowered, thereby cutting off further capillary wicking action and drying out the upper medium. Beyond early seedling establishment, water and nutrients were provided to the crop stand only by the bulk nutrient solution. This hybrid hydroponic system serves as a prototype for largerscale soilless growth systems that could be developed for production of smallseeded crops in greenhouses or controlled environments.

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Soon O. Park*, Kevin M. Crosby, Jonathan W. Sinclair, Kilsun Yoo, and Leonard M. Pike

Sucrose, fructose, total sugars and soluble solids are major factors in determining mature melon fruit sweetness. Bulked segregant analysis was utilized to detect RAPD markers associated with QTL for sucrose, total sugars and soluble solids in an F2 population from the ananas melon cross of Deltex (high sugars) × TGR1551 (low sugars). Sucrose, glucose, fructose and total sugar data were obtained from 108 F2 plants by means of HPLC. Clear separations for sucrose, total sugars and soluble solids between Deltex and TGR1551 were observed, whereas slight differences for glucose and fructose were found. Continuous distributions for sucrose, total sugars and soluble solids were observed in the F2 population indicating quantitative inheritance for the sweetness traits. A significant negative correlation was observed between sucrose and glucose (r = -25) or fructose (r = -0.31). A significant positive correlation was noted between sucrose and total sugars (r = 0.80) or soluble solids (r = 0.64). Three low and high DNA bulk pairs for sucrose, total sugars and soluble solids were developed. A total of 360 primers were used to simultaneously screen between the low and high bulks, and between Deltex and TGR1551. Sixty-eight RAPD markers were polymorphic for the low and high bulks. Of the 68 markers, 24 were found to be significantly associated with sucrose, total sugars or soluble solids on the basis of single-factor ANOVA. Marker OM15.550 was consistently associated with QTL affecting sucrose, glucose, fructose, total sugars and soluble solids, and accounted for 7% to 25% of the phenotypic variation for the traits. These markers associated with the sugar synthesis QTL could be useful to transfer these genes into a low sugar cultivar to enhance the fruit sweetness.

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P.W. Simon, P.A. Roberts, and L.S. Boiteux

Nematodes impart significant damage to carrot production worldwide. Genetic resistance was studied for Meloidogyne javanica, one of the three major nematodes affecting carrots in warmer climates. F2, F3, and backcross families of `Brasilia' × B6274 were evaluated for resistance in inoculated seedlings. Resistance was conditioned by one, or two linked, dominant loci. Molecular markers were also evaluated with bulked segregant analysis. Three RAPD markers and AFLPs were associated with resistance loci.

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Carl E. Niedziela Jr. and Paul V. Nelson

A new tube method for determining physical properties in container substrates was compared to an existing system. While both offer the advantages of undisturbed substrate and measurement of properties without altering the geometry of the substrate in the container, the tube method is easier to conduct. Both methods proved equally effective for determining air-tilled porosity, container capacity, total porosity, bulk density, and particle density.

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Domingos P. F. Almeida and Donald J. Huber

Pectin solubility in ripening tomato fruit is typically studied in vitro, employing isolated cell walls; however, it is unknown whether in vitro studies address the actual changes in the status of pectins in the fruit in situ. In vivo pectin solubilization was examined in a pressure-extracted apoplastic fluid obtained from ripening and chill-injured tomato fruit with down-regulated polygalacturonase (PG) activity and untransformed wild-type. Pectin levels in apoplastic fluid increased 3-fold during ripening and were not affected by PG levels. In contrast, PG strongly affected pectin levels in bulk, enzymically active pericarp fluid. There was a 14-fold increase in bulk pectin levels during ripening of PG-antisense fruit and a 36-fold increase in wild-type fruit. Pectin levels in the apoplastic fluid of fruit stored at 5 °C for 14 days were 40% lower than that of freshly harvested mature-green fruit, but increased significantly upon transfer of fruit to 15 °C. Monomeric galactose in the apoplastic fluid increased from 41 mg·mL–1 at the mature-green stage to 67 mg·mL–1 in ripe fruit. Bulk levels of galactose were 3- to 4-fold higher than apoplastic levels. After low-temperature storage galactose levels were 50% and 20% lower than in freshly harvested fruit for the bulk and apoplastic fluids, respectively. These results indicate that in vivo pectin solubilization is restricted and largely independent of PG. Low-temperature storage reduces in vivo pectin solubilization, an effect that is reversed upon transfer of fruit to higher temperature following cold storage.

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Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Ioannis Amountzias, Iro Kokkinou, and Nikolaos Ntoulas

presence of soil in the mix, which was indicative of a different pore size distribution that enabled water retention in higher tensions ( Aggelides and Londra, 2000 ). Both substrates had reduced dry and saturated bulk density, but the soil substrate had

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D.S. NeSmith, G. Hoogenboom, and D.V. McCracken

Three summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivars were grown using conventional tillage and no-till soil management practices during 1991 and 1992 in the mountain regions of Georgia. Soil bulk density and N content as well as crop dry weight, leaf area, and yield were monitored to assess the potential for using conservation tillage in squash production. Soil bulk density of the surface (0 to 10 cm) layer under no-till exceeded. that under conventional tillage at planting by 0.25 Mg·m-3, and 1 month after planting by as much as 0.16 Mg·m-3. However, growth-limiting bulk densities (>1.45 Mg·m-3) did not occur. Total soil N to a 30-cm depth was similar for the two tillage regimes. There were no significant cultivar × tillage interaction effects on plant dry weight, leaf area, or crop yield. Total yields were similar for the two tillage regimes; however, early yield during 1991 was 27% less using no-till. There is potential for the use of conservation tillage in summer squash production in the southeastern United States. However, the current lack of registered herbicides for weed control and possible early market price incentives are likely disadvantages to widespread acceptance of such cultural practices.

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Hong Y. Yang, Schuyler S. Korban, Jutta Krüger, and Hanna Schmidt

Almost 200 random sequence decamer primers were used to screen a pair of bulked samples of apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) DNA and that of the donor parent Malus floribunda Sieb. clone 821 for molecular markers linked to the Vf gene conferring resistance to apple scab [Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint.]. Identified was a single primer that generated a polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) fragment, OPAR4/1400, from the donor parent M. floribunda clone 821 and the scab-resistant selections/cultivars bulk, but not from the scab-susceptible recurrent-parent bulk. Cosegregation analysis using a segregating apple progeny and polymorphism analysis of individual scab-resistant selections/cultivars confirmed that this marker was linked to the scab-resistance gene Vf OPAR4/1400 was then cloned and sequenced. Sequence-specific primers of 25 oligonucleotides based on the marker were developed and used to screen further M. floribunda clone 821, scab-susceptible apple cultivars, scab-resistant apple cultivars, and scab-resistant Purdue, Rutgers, and Univ. of Illinois apple breeding program selections. The sequence-specific primers identified polymorphisms of OPAR4/1400 based on the presence or absence of a single band. This molecular marker is at a distance of about 3.6 cM from the Vf gene.

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Peng Ling, Fred G. Gmitter Jr., Larry W. Duncan, and S. Y. Xiao

A family of 63 citrus intergenemic backcross hybrids was used for this study. The parents and hybrids were multiplied by rooted cuttings, with 6 uniform replicates selected per hybrid, and each plant was inoculated with citrus nematodes (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 5 times over 2 mo. The number of nematode female larvae per gram of fine fresh root was determind 2 mo after the last inoculation. The phenotypic variation of the hybrids was continuous and wide-ranged, from 8.0 females· g-1 of root tissue (resistant parent Swingle citrumelo=15.6) to 620.0 females· g-1 of root tissue (susceptible parent LB 6-2=540.5). Bulked segregant analysis (BSA), using RAPD fragments, was conducted with 2 DNA bulks of individuals from the extremes of the phenotypic distribution. Three hundred twenty primers were screened and 5 were found to generate repeatedly single RAPD fragments specific to the resistant bulk. The segregation of resistance-associated fragments among the individuals was examined, and the linkage between these markers and potential nematode resistance loci was estimated.